This week's editor

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Adam Ramsay is co-editor of OurKingdom.

Francis Fukuyama's seminal book The End of History and the Last Man became an icon of American and western intellectual self-confidence after the cold war. Since then, Rwanda, Yugoslavia, 9/11, Afghanistan, Iraq, and the "war on terror" have happened. Fukuyama and his critics examine what remains of the argument.

Time for the human approach

Dmitry Medvedev’s proposal for a new post-cold war security order offers a significant opportunity for the world. But both the West and Russia need to move on from conventional security logic, and think in terms of the human, argue Mary Kaldor and Javier Solana.

The 'end of history' symposium: a response

An openDemocracy symposium on Francis Fukuyama's work features leading critics who question the arguments of the renowned author's new afterword to "The End of History and the Last Man".

Which Fukuyama?

Francis Fukuyama is caught between the triumphalism of Kant, Hegel, and Marx, and the despair of Nietzsche, Heidegger and Kojève, says Shadia Drury.

The trouble with Islam, the European Union - and Francis Fukuyama

Francis Fukuyama's historicism fails to accommodate two contemporary political realities and in the process misunderstands history itself, says Roger Scruton.

The modernisation myth

The determinism of Francis Fukuyama's reheated modernisation theory does not fit the historical experience of the contemporary middle east, says Gavin Kitching.

The beginning of a history

Francis Fukuyama's claims of universalism are belied by his unawareness of wider debates about modern knowledge systems, argues Vinay Lal.

The logic of a blocked history

Francis Fukuyama's ascription to history of a plot and climax is implausible, but the grain of his work is freshly relevant to the post-9/11 world, says Stephen Holmes.

The intoxications of history

Francis Fukuyama's welcome revision of his argument leaves its homogenising, simplifying impulses untouched. Charles S Maier is unpersuaded.

The end of history and the long march of secularisation

The Muslim world is witnessing a gradual recasting of Islam in the framework of democracy, says Olivier Roy.

Fukuyama's crossroads: the poetics of location

The American triumphalism of Francis Fukuyama's work is encoded in its key concepts, writes David Scott.

Politico-religious cults and the 'end of history'

The Muslim world's encounter with modernity is a dislocating process that may prove fatal to theocrats and autocrats alike, says Saad Eddin Ibrahim.

The end of history, or history all over again?

The institutions of liberal democracy may have to change for its values to be sustained, writes Anthony Pagden.

A single history?

Francis Fukuyama's defence of the universalism of western values and institutions is challenged by modern global political realities, says Talal Asad.

A state of decay

Francis Fukuyama's vision falls short of recognising how the deficits in liberal democracy are being generated from within, says Saskia Sassen.

The 'end of history' revisited: Francis Fukuyama and his critics

Francis Fukuyama's renowned argument about universal history and liberal democracy remains a source of dispute. openDemocracy is publishing the author's new Afterword to "The End of History and the Last Man", followed by reflections from international thinkers on this seminal work. Here, Danny Postel introduces Fukuyama's essay and the symposium.

After the 'end of history'

Francis Fukuyama's "end of history" thesis – proposed in a 1989 essay, elaborated in a 1992 book – was the most influential attempt to make sense of the post-cold-war world. In a new afterword to "The End of History and the Last Man", Fukuyama reflects on how his ideas have survived the tides of criticism and political change.
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