On 27 April 2007 a blizzard of distributed
"denial-of-service" attacks hit important websites in Estonia and continued
until at least as late as mid-June. The targets included the website of the
president, parliament, leading ministries, political parties, major news
outlets, and Estonia's two dominant banks, which were rendered unable to interact with customers.
Angolas government, in need of reconstruction funds after the countrys long civil war, was in the process of negotiating a new loan with the International Monetary Fund in 2004. The IMF, aware of Angolas long history of corruption and poor governance since independence from Portuguese colonial rule in 1975, was keen to include measures to cut corruption and tighten the countrys economic management.