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About Reinoud Leenders

Reinoud Leenders is Assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of Amsterdam. He formerly worked as Middle East analyst for the International Crisis Group based in Beirut (2002-2005). He is coeditor with Steven Heydemann of the volume, forthcoming with Stanford University Press (October 2012): Middle East Authoritarianisms: Governance, Contestation, and Regime Resilience in Syria and Iran 

Articles by Reinoud Leenders

This week’s front page editor


Adam Bychawski is an editorial assistant at openDemocracy.

Constitutional conventions: best practice

Syria's crisis: a credible threat is what is needed

The escalation of regime violence is not a response to the rise of an armed opposition, but the reaction of the Assad regime to a popular uprising that has demonstrated remarkable resilience. Without a credible threat, ‘Weapons vs. Negotiations’ is a false choice.

Also in this oS Analysis debate:
Mariano Aguirre, on why force would intensify the conflict. Read Mariano Aguirre’s response to this critique, and Robert Matthews on the decades-long consequences of militarization.

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