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“Sunny

Sunny Hundal is openDemocracy’s social media editor.

Constitutional conventions: best practice

openDemocracy writers measure the benefits, costs, and consequences of Turkey's path to European Union membership.

Erdogan’s triumph and Turkey's future

Turkey's president is confirmed once more as the master of Turkish politics. Now he faces his greatest challenge.

Turkey’s election and the Kurdish peace process: what now?

The post-election landscape in Turkey raises new challenges in the search for a lasting settlement of the conflict between Turks and Kurds.

What next in Turkey?

Turkey's election result is a tribute to its vibrant democracy. But there are hard political and economic tests to come.

A new Turkey... but not one to Erdoğan's liking

A stunning election result against many odds is a resounding statement of Turkey's democratic credentials.

Turkey’s elections: knowns and unknowns

This vote presents Turkey with momentous choices, with the combative figure of its president at the centre of them all.

Freedom or dignity: media censorship in the new Turkey

Banning one photo from the internet might seem to reflect the paranoia of an increasingly authoritarian AKP regime but Erdogan’s grasp could really be weakening.

Turkey's future: Erdoğan, elections and the Kurds

Turkey is gearing up for pivotal elections on 7 June. At their heart is a complex interplay between presidential ambitions, party fissures, and Kurdish aspirations.

Turkey and Armenia: genocide? what genocide?

April 1915 saw the start of the genocide against Armenians and other minorities in the former Ottoman Empire. Erdoğan hopes he can ignore the anniversary and it will go away—while Armenian politics is stuck in victim mode.

New security laws could make Turkey into a police state

The latest crackdown on journalists in Turkey is another twist in the spiral into authoritarianism of a state bereft of an effective political oppositionwith 'Putinisation' an increasingly realistic description.

The European Kurds rallying to fight IS

With Kurds in Iraq and Syria under attack from the Islamic State, many young Kurds in Europe have been joining resistance forces—a trend occluded by the media focus on European-born jihadists.

Turkey, Kobane and the Kurdish question

The US wants Turkey to join the military effort against Islamic State at Kurdish-dominated Kobane, across the Syrian border—but Ankara’s focus is the Kurds within its own.

Turkey bombs Kurdish forces as violence threatens to spill over

The law of unintended effects is in evidence as the rise of Islamic State threatens a potential resolution of Turkey's Kurdish question.

Turkey and the Islamic State crisis: everyone's non-ally?

The military success of the Islamic State in Syria and Iraq intensifies questions over Turkey's strategy and decisions. What Ankara does next will help to resolve them.   

Turkey's Armenian opening: towards 2015

The approaching centenary of the genocide of Armenians in the Ottoman empire is a moment for Turkey's civil society to create a new ethical reality around the issue

Leviathan in the lure of Mammon: limits of political Islam in Turkey

Turkey's political leadership has created a distinctive form of rule. But growing strains now make it harder than ever to sustain the model, says Kerem Öktem.

Turkey, from tension to transition

The fierce conflicts of Turkey's last year may create the foundations of a new socio-political consensus, says Galip Dalay.

Turkey: trade unionism on trial

As the Erdogan government in Turkey takes an increasingly authoritarian turn, trade unionists have been in the firing line. But a mass trial in Istanbul, little noticed by the international media, has not gone entirely the government’s way.

Turkey's struggle: Erdoğan vs Gülen

A series of escalating crises in Turkey is reshaping political alliance and enmities. It also casts a shadow over the country's democratic future, says Bill Park.

Turkey’s "race codes" and the Ottoman legacy

The revelation that modern Turkey continues secretly to classify its citizens according to religious criteria reflects the weight of the Ottoman past. It also has implications for those in the middle east seeking a state based on equality before law, says Vicken Cheterian.

Turkey, from Tahrir to Taksim

The public demonstrations in Turkey are a challenge to the social destruction and political regression being pushed through by an autocratic prime minister. This is a moment for change, says Kerem Oktem in Istanbul.

Turkey, a people-power tide

The eruption of protest in Istanbul and other Turkish cities expresses vigorous opposition to the political direction of prime minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, says Dimitar Bechev.

Turkey, the end of Islamism with a human face

Turkey's AKP government has over a decade promised a new model of governance: progressive and reformist, Islamist and democratic. But a series of developments, including the expanding power of prime minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, is now exposing the party and its policies to ever-deeper scrutiny, says Kerem Oktem.

Turkey’s Kurdish policy: sleepwalking to crisis

 A mix of inheritance, repression and strategic vacuity is pulling Turkey's leadership into a long-term Kurdish quagmire, says Bill Park.

Turkey, Kurds, Iraq, Syria: a new regional dynamic

The middle-east’s power-balance is in flux amid state tensions and political conflicts. In a two-part article, Bill Park - who was recently in Ankara and Erbil - examines the impact of these changes on Turkey and its neighbours, especially the Kurdish Regional Government (KRG) of northern Iraq. In part one, he looks at the Iraqi dimension; in part two, at Syria’s conflict and the wider Kurdish question.

Turkey and the Armenians: politics of history

A new generation's encounter with the Armenian genocide of 1915 is producing fresh understandings of Turkey's - and the middle east's - modern history, finds Vicken Cheterian.

The Americanisation of Turkey

Turkey's international profile and domestic politics have long been oriented towards the European Union. Now, both the Arab awakening and the internal momentum of AKP rule are pushing Ankara closer to the United States, says Dimitar Bechev.

The water finds its crack: an Armenian in Turkey

Europe and Turkey are locked in a relationship of mutual fear and suppressed desire. It will be opened when Turkey can face its greatest taboo, says the editor of the Armenian-Turkish newspaper “Agos” in Istanbul, Hrant Dink.

(This article was first published on 13 December 2005)

Armenia-Turkey: the end of rapprochement

A diplomatic process designed to normalise relations between Armenia and Turkey led to the signing of two protocols in 2009. Its failure is rooted in the miscalculations of both sides, says Vicken Cheterian.

2011, lessons of hubris

The Arab uprisings expose the self-delusion of the powerful - from the region itself to Turkey, Germany and the rest of Europe. This is a moment to register and build on, says Kerem Oktem.

Significant changes in Turkish religion and Turkish nationalism

Turkish society has proved to be loyal to its country rather than divided over religious and political views as Turkey’s disputes with Israel have united them into a common feeling: nationalism.

Turkish democracy: a flawed model

Turkey’s political leadership under Recep Tayyip Erdogan is projecting the country as a successful model of democracy for Arab states emerging from authoritarian rule. A closer look casts doubt on the claim, say Agnes Czajka and Bora Isyar.

The AKP years in Turkey: the third stage

A near-decade of rule by Turkey’s governing AKP has reshaped the state and consolidated the party’s clear political hegemony. But this very success exposes serious remaining problems in Turkish democracy, says Gunes Murat Tezcur.

Turkey's democracy, Europe's imperative

The result of Turkey's election creates a vital need to put the country's relationship with the European Union at the centre of both partners' concerns. What is at stake is the historic mission of reconciling secularism, democracy and Islam, says Nora Fisher Onar.

Turkey’s election, and democracy's shadow

The third successive victory of Turkey’s ruling party confirms its domination of the country’s political landscape. But a close study of the AKP's evolving methods of rule reinforces grave doubts about the direction of Turkish democracy, says Gareth Jenkins.

Turkey's “passive revolution” and democracy

A near-decade of rule by strategic, business-friendly, moderate Islamists has transformed Turkey’s political dynamics. Now, the prospect of a third successive electoral victory seems to offer the Justice & Development Party (AKP) a chance to consolidate its hegemony over the once entrenched military-led “deep state”. But the situation is not so simple for the AKP, nor so clear for Turkey’s future. Rather, increasing domestic tension and regional turbulence are posing critical new questions over the country’s democracy and model of governance, says Kerem Oktem.
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