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Reinoud Leenders is Assistant Professor
of Political Science at the University of Amsterdam. He formerly worked as
Middle East analyst for the International Crisis Group based in Beirut
(2002-2005). He is coeditor with Steven Heydemann of the volume,
forthcoming with Stanford University Press (October 2012): Middle East
Authoritarianisms: Governance, Contestation, and Regime Resilience in Syria and
The escalation of regime violence is not a response to the rise of an armed opposition, but the reaction of the...