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Steven Heydemann serves as Senior Adviser
for Middle East Initiatives at the U.S. Institute of Peace. From 2003 to 2007,
Heydemann directed the Center for Democracy and Civil Society at Georgetown
University. He is coeditor with Reinoud Leenders of the forthcoming volume
with Stanford University Press (October 2012): Middle East
Authoritarianisms: Governance, Contestation, and Regime Resilience in Syria and
The escalation of regime violence is not a response to the rise of an armed opposition, but the reaction of the...