Pre-Schengen passport stamp from Idomeni, Greece. Wikimedia Commons.
Idomeni is not an official refugee camp; it is a small and quiet Greek village that was partly occupied by a growing population who was blocked at the Republic of Macedonia’s boarder. For those coming from Greece through Turkey, the Republic of Macedonia is the first country of the so-called “Balkan route”. Since the summer, transit increased radically. Daily, about 3000 people cross the boarder to enter Macedonia. This year, about 729 thousand people have arrived to Greece, claiming for asylum, according to data from UNHCR. Among those, there are migrants and refugees. The forced differentiation between them, considered unfair by many, has led to major protests and growing violence at the camp.
Five days after the November’s Paris attacks, the Republic of Macedonia and Serbia limited the crossing of their boarders to Syrians, Afghans and Iraqis. Those who were forbidden to enter Europe through Macedonia, since the 18th of November, were forced to stay in the camp. Nationalities varied: there were people from Maghreb – mostly Moroccans –, many Iranians, Palestinians, Ghanaians, Somalis, Sudanese, Pakistanis, Bangladeshis, Nepalese and Indians. 80% of the people at the camp were men. Iranians, Palestinians, Ghanaians, Somalis, Sudanese and Nepalese came mostly with their families, whereas many people from Maghreb, Pakistanis and Indians were men, aged between 25 and 35, who came alone or with friends. Many of those who could/ can cross the boarder – Syrians, Afghans, Iraqis and Palestinian refugees from Syria (Palestinian refugees from Lebanon cannot cross the boarder) – come with their families.
The closure of the boarder is a measure that aims to differentiate between refugees and migrants. However, if this measure protects Europe from the coming of marginal groups who aim to illegitimately take advantage from the right of asylum, it also affects those who can and should be able to claim for their right of asylum. Such was the case of most Iranians, who were blocked at the camp for about 15 days. Aslam, a shy and quiet Iranian boy with about 10 years old, raised his head to smile and lowered it so that he could concentrate on his drawing. He joined the protests like all the others. He drew the symbol of UNHCR three times (a pair of hands housing a person) and wrote around repeatedly “help, help, help” and in the middle “IRAN”.
Photo taken by the author.
Three tents from camp A – the camp that is closer to the boarder and the one that is policed – were mostly filled with Iranians. After arriving from Athens, they were unaware that they were forbidden to cross the boarder. There were many Iranians inside the buses that arrived daily at the camp. Syrians, Afghans and Iraqis arriving with them followed their way to the boarder, but Iranians were forced to remain there. Nassin, 35 years old, arrived to Greece by sea, coming from Turkey. She came with her two sons, her husband and two other relatives. Each of them paid 1200€ for the boat passage – a boat of 10m length with 45 people in it. They are an Iranian family. Nassin and her husband are translators (English – Farsi). Nassin’s brother-in-law is in England and they wish to arrive there. Nassin wanted to know if they would be allowed to the cross the boarder and what country might better welcome them. To many refugees, Germany is only a reference, usually suggested by smugglers, not a planned and inflexible choice.
Both those who were forbidden to cross and those who were allowed to cross the boarder had no knowledge about the route through Europe and about the procedures. Volunteers at the camp helped them cross to Macedonia and gave them information about the route until Austria (Macedonia – Serbia – Croatia – Slovenia – Austria). Those not allowed to cross were helped as well. Tents, sleeping bags and blankets were given. The number of goods distributed was, however, less that what was needed. Food, for instance – which was given out by groups of volunteers coming from Greece, Germany, Portugal and the U.S. – was not enough for all the people at the camp. Food was not given to those crossing the boarder; they went directly to Gevgelija camp, on the side of the Republic of Macedonia, where they were given a meal.
In the weeks between the 27th of November and the 3rd of December, protests carried out by those blocked at the camp escalated. In the first days, protests were peaceful. Among the protesters, there were men as well as women and children. Protests were peaceful and almost passive – messages were written on cardboards and on tents. Some protesters went on hunger strike and sewn up their lips. On the 28th of November, the Republic of Macedonia built a boarder with metal fence and barbed wire. Gradually, as time passed and there were no signs of a flexible resolution on the part of the authorities, protests turned violent. Between the 2nd and the 3rd of December, as the situation was uncontrollable, NGO’s left the camp. On those days, tents from UNHCR, including the one were workers gathered, those from Doctors Without Boarders and one small tent were children could play were destroyed. UNHCR called for an adequate intervention on the part of Greek police patrols, who were not allowed to intervene, unless in borderline cases.
It is necessary to prevent, but there was no prevention at Idomeni camp. FRONTEX will step in and settle at the camp soon. By now, only independent volunteers or volunteers from small NGO’s are at the camp. They are clearly vulnerable and at risk. Under that incontrollable situation, where even the police fences and gates were destroyed, the Republic of Macedonia decided to temporarily close the boarder, on the 2nd of December. Buses with refugees coming from Athens continued to arrive, however. On the 4th of November, about 8000 people were at the camp – the camp should take, at maximum, 2500 people.
Contrarily to what is believed, most people don’t speak or hardly speaks English. Syrians are the most educated and those who better speak and understand English. Many Afghans, Iraqis and Iranians speak only Arabic or Farsi. To help all these people, there were at the camp only 6 interpreters, who were not all at the camp at the same time. Kurds who speak only Kurdish found it hard to explain themselves and to be understood. Frimesk is a 9-year-old Kurdish girl. Her mother tried to make herself clear, when speaking with an interpreter from UNHCR. They couldn’t understand each other – the interpreter spoke Arabic and Frimesk’s mother spoke Kurdish. I, later, found Frimesk at the children’s tent and, with drawings and by gestures, could get to know her name, her age and her family constitution. She came with her mother, father and her younger brother. It’s hard to know more. There was no one to understand them, no one to help them cross the boarder.
The situation at the camp was overwhelming – to those arriving, fearing the chaotic scene, to those who stayed, upset by the lack of solutions, and to those who tried to help, who had no means or assistance to do it. After two weeks at a disorganized camp, it’s easy to understand its flaws and gaps. This is why cases of rape and harassment and suspects of child trafficking increased. Some African women were said to prostitute themselves, possibly to earn money to go back to their countries.
Most of those forbidden to enter the Republic of Macedonia were also prevented from going back – many people have left everything behind to come to Europe; many had no money left for the return trip and were afraid to go back because of the debts they acquired so they could make it to Europe. Until recently, Idomeni was a dead end. There, many could neither go further or back. Everyone who was blocked at the camp was recently relocated to Athens. The problem was shifted, though not solved.