'The Great Migration', Jacob Lawrence

openDemocracy Opendemocracy
13 May 2007

The First Wave of the Great Migration (1916-1919) - part I "Around the time of WWI, many African-Americans from the South left home and traveled to cities in the North in search of a better life." © Jacob Lawrence

Jacob Lawrence (1917-2000) was one of the most distinguished African American painters of the twentieth century. Known for narrative series depicting important events in American history he came to prominence through the "Migration Series" (1941) illustrating the south-to-north mass migration of African Americans after the first world war.

The sixty panels in this series recount vividly the story of the migrants who journeyed north in search of a better life. Each painting is accompanied by a description to add a further dimension to the visual narrative. It is, however, what is left unsaid that is often most poignant in Lawrence's work. In the painting below he substitutes the grotesquery of a lynching and the heckling of an angry mob with the simple yet highly emotive image of an empty noose dangling from the tree and a grieving woman huddled up by its side.

Lawrence's panels convey the discrimination and lack of identity suffered by African American migrants. As the blog "(Notes on) Politics, Theory & Photography" has observed:

"in this series Lawrence also tends to paint African Americans in silhouette ... even as he regularly paints Caucasians with discernable facial features. Lawrence's migrants, then tend to be anonymous, often members of largish groups."

Nonetheless, Lawrence's paintings are effective in conveying both the hardships faced by the migrants and also the courage with which they made their journeys. As Lawrence himself has said:

"Uprooting yourself from one way of life to make your way in another involves conflict and struggle. But out of the struggle comes a kind of power, and even beauty. I tried to convey this in the rhythm of the pictures, and in the repetition of certain images."


The First Wave of the Great Migration (1916-1919) - part I "Northern industries offered Southern blacks jobs as workers and lent them money, to be repaid later, for their railroad tickets. The Northbound trains were packed with recruits." © Jacob Lawrence

The First Wave of the Great Migration (1916-1919) - part I "For African-Americans the South was barren in many ways. There was no justice for them in courts, and their lives were often in danger." © Jacob Lawrence

The First Wave of the Great Migration (1916-1919) - part IV "Life in the North brought many challenges, but the migrants' lives had changed for the better. The children were able to go to school, and their parents gained the freedom to vote." © Jacob Lawrence

Should we allow artificial intelligence to manage migration?

How is artificial intelligence being used in governing migration? What are the risks and opportunities that the emerging technology raises for both the state and the individual crossing a country’s borders?

Ryerson University’s Canada Excellence Research Chair in Migration and Integration and openDemocracy have teamed up to host this free live discussion on 15 April at 5pm UK time/12pm EDT.

Hear from:

Ana Beduschi Associate professor of law, University of Exeter

Hilary Evans Cameron Assistant professor, faculty of law, Ryerson University

Patrick McEvenue Senior director, Strategic Policy Branch, Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada

Chair: Lucia Nalbandian Researcher, CERC Migration, Ryerson University

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