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Amnesty International: adopt the proposed policy on sex work

CATW’s opposition to Amnesty International’s ‘draft policy on sex work’ is misguided. A coalition of sex workers’ organisations and advocates fills in the gaps in this open letter to AI.

Sex workers protest for their rights in 2011. Melissa Gira/Flickr. Creative Commons.

This is the second of two letters published on Beyond Trafficking and Slavery in support of Amnesty International's 'Draft Policy on Sex Work'. The first, 'Why decriminalise sex work?' from the Global Network of Sex Work Projects (NSWP), was published 30 July. To signal your own support for these initiatives, sign this letter and/or NSWP's petition at change.org. This letter has been simultaneously published on ICRSE's website.

Dear Mr. Shetty and the International Board:

We write to you in regard to Amnesty International’s “Draft Policy on Sex Work”, which will be submitted for consideration at AI’s International Council Meeting in Dublin, 7-11 August 2015.

The International Committee on the Rights of Sex Workers in Europe (ICRSE) is a sex worker-led network representing 70 organisations led by or working with sex workers in Europe and Central Asia, as well as 150 individuals including sex workers, academics, trade unionists, human rights advocates, women’s rights activists, and LGBT rights activists. ICRSE, its members, and the signatories below are expressing their full support for Amnesty International’s “Draft Policy on Sex Work”. We commend the evidence-based draft policy that has been developed with careful consideration of the diversity of sex workers’ voices and experiences.

We are aware that Amnesty International will be pressured to back down from this position, but we urge you to show courage and tenacity and to adopt this policy. Sex workers worldwide are organising and advocating, often in very precarious and dangerous contexts, for the decriminalisation of sex work. Having Amnesty International take this position would make a significant contribution to promoting sex workers’ human rights and protecting them from discrimination and violence. A non-position by Amnesty International would be seen as an approval of the status quo and—in some national contexts—an implicit support for the criminalisation of paid consensual sex (namely through the criminalisation of clients), causing very grave consequences for the human rights of sex workers.

We, sex workers and those that support our struggle for human rights, know that any form of criminalisation (including criminalisation of clients) directly affects our livelihoods and working conditions. We urge Amnesty International to listen to sex workers and to support full decriminalisation of sex work.

We read with attention the letter addressed to Amnesty International by the Coalition Against Trafficking in Women (CATW), and would like to respond to some of their key arguments and highlight some of the gaps in the information that they provided.

We are urging Amnesty International to take into consideration the below arguments of the European sex worker movement, stay true to its values and vote in favour of decriminalisation of sex work. As long as sex work is criminalised—directly or indirectly through laws and practices targeting sex workers, clients, or third parties—sex workers will be at risk of police violence, arrests, rape, blackmail and deportations, and will be unable to report abuse committed by clients, third parties and members of the public.

By voting for this policy, Amnesty International will not side with exploiters and clients. On the contrary, Amnesty International will side with the universality of human rights and with sex workers, supporting us in our struggle to access justice and hold accountable those that abuse and attack us.

We hope that Amnesty International will listen to its own research, conducted over two years, to the growing evidence for decriminalisation and to the voices of all the current and former sex workers who are the most affected by laws criminalising sex work.

On the Swedish Model and its implementation

First of all, there is no evidence that the Swedish model reduces the numbers of sex workers or victims of trafficking. The Swedish National Board for Health and Welfare notes:

It is also difficult to discern any clear trend of development: has the extent of prostitution increased or decreased. We cannot give any unambiguous answer to that question. At most, we can discern that street prostitution is slowly returning, after swiftly disappearing in the wake of the law against purchasing sexual services. But as said, that refers to street prostitution, which is the most obvious manifestation. With regard to increases and decreases in other areas of prostitution—the “hidden prostitution”—we are even less able to make any statements.

In their annual report on trafficking, the Swedish police noted that “in 2009 … there were about 90 Thai massage parlours in Stockholm and vicinity, most of which were judged to be offering sexual services for sale. At the turn of 2011/2012, the number of Thai massage parlours in the Stockholm area was estimated to be about 250 and throughout the country about 450”. This is a threefold increase in three years.

There is, however strong evidence that this model is detrimental to sex workers, as it pushes them underground, prevents them from reporting violence, and deprives them of the ability to work together for safety. In particular, we urge you to understand the “The Danger of Seeing the Swedish Model in a Vacuum” and how sex workers are still marginalised and made vulnerable in Sweden itself by the Swedish Model.

Furthermore, we are concerned that the letter provided by CATW purposefully ignores the actual effects of the implementation of the Swedish Model in other countries.

A Norwegian governmental report stressed that “women in the street market report to have a weaker bargaining position and more safety concerns now than before the law (criminalising clients) was introduced. At the indoors market, prostitutes express concern for the ‘out-door’ calls”.

What Swedish Model advocates also conveniently and constantly forget to mention is that countries which have debated or considered the criminalisation of clients have not removed the criminalisation of sex workers themselves. Even worse, in such countries, the debate framed by politicians, some women’s rights and religious organisations, and the media about “abolishing prostitution” has led to a very significant increase in stigmatisation of sex workers and the associated development of policies and by-laws directly targeting sex workers.

For example, in Europe, Lithuania extended penalisation to clients, while retaining it for sex workers. In Northern Ireland, the criminalisation of clients was added to the other laws criminalising many aspects of sex work. In other parts of UK, each attempt to introduce the criminalisation of clients has been in addition to laws criminalising sex workers. In France, the three year legislative debate on the criminalisation of clients has actually delayed and possibly buried the removal of passive soliciting, a law which directly targets street based sex workers. Meanwhile, many French councils, emboldened by the debate on “abolishing prostitution”, have passed municipal by-laws banning sex workers from city centres and residential neighbourhoods, pushing them to the outskirts of the cities where they are more vulnerable to violence.

On legalisation and decriminalisation

We hope that directors of Amnesty International will have a clearer understanding than the authors and signatories of CATW’s letter regarding the differences between the legalisation and decriminalisation of sex work.

Sex workers globally—as well as the numerous institutions and international organisations including UNAIDS, WHO, and The Lancet, which have extensively researched the impact of criminalisation—advocate for the decriminalisation of sex work, referring to the system implemented in New Zealand in 2003.

We recognise the complex issues associated with legalisation. In Germany, sex work has been legal since 1927, not 2002 as stated in the CATW letter. What the new prostitution law of 2002 changed was to recognise contracts between clients and sex workers and introduce the right of sex workers to sue clients refusing to pay for their services. Thus, what is misleadingly called the “legalisation” of prostitution was actually the recognition of sex work as labour. Many issues in Germany are related to the non-implementation of the law in many federal states: in effect, many sex workers are criminalised in Germany through zoning laws. We reject the biased reporting made by CATW and object to the claims (unfounded and insulting to actual victims of torture) that “torture” is now available as a service in German licenced brothels.

Regarding estimates of the number of victims of trafficking, which is often wrongly conflated with the sex sector, the Federal Crime Office of Germany noted: "The number of identified cases of human trafficking for sexual exploitation in Germany has been decreasing in the past years and in 2013 it has reached the lowest point since 2006". In the Netherlands, the Dutch National Rapporteur on Trafficking in Human Beings concluded “that it is not (yet) possible to give an answer to the question of the extent to which legalisation of prostitution leads to more human trafficking.”

On male and trans sex workers

Moreover, the CATW letter ignores that sex work is a multi-gendered phenomenon and that both male and trans sex workers in many countries face some of the most serious violence and human rights violations. Although the majority of sex workers are women, to deliberately ignore the large number of men and trans people working in the sex industry shows an incomplete and dangerous understanding of sex work. Violence and murders of trans sex workers in particular, often by the hands of or with the complicity of the authorities and police, are revoltingly high and the voices of trans sex workers should not be sidelined and ignored.

Between 2008 and 2014, 1,612 reported killings of gender-variant/trans people in 62 countries have been documented, including 90 in thirteen European countries. Of those whose profession was known, 65 per cent were sex workers. In our region, Turkey has seen 35 trans women, the majority sex workers, murdered in the last five years. Notably, any form of criminalisation significantly increases sex workers’ vulnerability to violence on the part of the police and other perpetrators. Ignoring the voices of trans sex workers is a form of social marginalisation and violence.

On migrant sex workers

As a last point, we would like to focus on some of the issues faced by migrant sex workers.

In many European countries migrants may constitute up to 75 per cent of sex workers. They may lack documentation and may be subjected to violence and labour exploitation. What CATW ignores in their letter is—again—that the so-called Swedish Model or partial criminalisation puts migrant sex workers under a constant threat of police repression, arrest or/and deportation, denying their right to access to justice and redress. This is particularly relevant at a time when the world is facing the highest crisis in numbers of displaced persons since World War II. Around 60 million people are forcibly displaced worldwide, and those that reach Europe face limited access to decent work and often have little or no access to benefits. Some of those seeking refuge and migrating to Europe choose selling sexual services out of very limited options to earn their living. Any argument made towards the criminalisation of sex work that ignores the working and living conditions of migrant sex workers is not only dangerous but plays into the hands of the increasingly racist and anti-migrant agendas of some state and non-state actors.

The call for the criminalisation of sex workers’ clients in the name of preventing and ending trafficking in human beings has been rejected by many anti-trafficking organisations that have learned through decades of working with trafficked persons that the criminalisation of sex work does not solve any of the problems they experience, nor does it prevent or stop human trafficking. These approaches have not been shown to protect sex workers, halt human trafficking, or dismantle criminal networks. They have rather led to violence and rights violations against sex workers and others. The stakes are simply too high here not to speak out and call for a different approach. Amnesty International must remain strong and focused on the human rights principles at issue. The decriminalisation of sex work and practices around it reduces the opportunities for exploitative labour practices in the sex sector.


Signatories

ORGANISATIONS

  1. ICRSE - International Committee on the Rights of Sex Workers in Europe
  2. SWAN - Sex Workers’ Rights Advocacy Network in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia
  3. Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women (GAATW) - International Secretariat, Bangkok, Thailand
  4. La Strada International Secretariat, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  5. Association for Women’s Rights in Development (AWID), Global
  6. The International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission (IGLHRC), New York, USA
  7. International Community of Women Living with HIV (ICW), Global Office, Kenya
  8. Transgender Europe
  9. Genera, Associación en Defensa de los Derechos de las Mujeres, Barcelona, Spain
  10. Red Umbrella Sexual Health and Human Rights Organisation Ankara, Turkey
  11. Pembe Hayat/Pink Life LGBTT Solidarity Association, Ankara, Turkey
  12. Pink Life - Red Umbrella Sex Workers Initiative, Ankara, Turkey
  13. LGBTT Solidarity Association, Ankara, Turkey
  14. PROUD, Dutch Union for Sexworkers, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
  15. Carusel Association, Bucharest, Romania
  16. Sexworker.at, NGO for Germany, Austria and Switzerland
  17. voice4sexworkers, Germany
  18. Sex Worker Open University, UK
  19. English Collective of Prostitutes, UK
  20. SCOT-PEP (Scottish Prostitutes Education Project), UK
  21. Sex Work Polska, Coalition for the Rights of Sex Workers in Poland
  22. Odyseus, Slovakia
  23. Sage Community Health Collective, Chicago, IL, USA
  24. St James Infirmary, San Francisco, CA, USA
  25. STAR-STAR, the first sex worker collective in the Balkans, Macedonia
  26. Project SAFE, Philadelphia, PA, USA
  27. Sex Workers Outreach Project - Philadelphia, USA
  28. Society Against Sexual Orientation Discrimination - Guyana
  29. Rights4Change, Utrecht, The Netherlands
  30. Sex Work Association of Jamaica- SWAJ, Jamaica
  31. Friends 4 Life- Jamaica
  32. FIRST Decriminalize Sex Work, Canada
  33. PIECE Edmonton, Sex Workers Advocacy Group, Canada
  34. Desiree Alliance USA
  35. Sex Workers Outreach Project - Los Angeles, CA, USA
  36. Sex Workers Outreach Project Sacramento, CA, USA
  37. Respect Inc, Queensland, Australia
  38. Justicia Digna, New Mexico, USA
  39. Chicago Recovery Alliance, Chicago IL, USA
  40. Collective of Sex Workers and Supporters (COSWAS), Taiwan
  41. Empower Foundation Thailand
  42. ASPASIE, Genève, Switzerland
  43. Association of Hungarian Sex Workers, Hungary
  44. BOULEVARDS, Geneva, Switzerland
  45. Ban Ying Coordination and Counselling Center against Trafficking in Persons e.V., Berlin, Germany
  46. Kisauni Peer Educators, box 91109 Mombasa, Kenya
  47. Scottish Secular Society, UK
  48. Seksualpolitisk Forum / Forum for sexual politics, Copenhagen, Denmark
  49. Ragazza e.V., organisation for drug using sex workers, Hamburg, Germany
  50. Lady Mermaid’s Bureau, Kampala, Uganda
  51. Ragazza-Kontakt, outreach team for indoors-based sex workers, Hamburg, Germany
  52. HOPS-Healthy Options Project Skopje, Macedonia
  53. Union “Positive in the Rainbow” - Warsaw, Poland
  54. Hydra e.V., Advice and Support Centre for Prostitutes, Berlin, Germany
  55. Sex Workers Outreach Project - Tampa Bay, USA
  56. Gadejuristen // The Danish Street Lawyers, Copenhagen, Denmark
  57. Out Now, Massachusetts, USA
  58. Madonna e.V.,Bochum, Germany
  59. Midnight Blue, Hong Kong
  60. LEFÖ, Beratung, Bildung und Begleitung für Migrantinnen, Vienna/Austria
  61. Morel LGBTI formation, Eskişehir, USA
  62. Pivot Legal Society, Vancouver, Canada
  63. Davida - Prostituição, Direitos Civis, Saúde, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  64. Daspu, sex worker fashion label, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  65. Beijo da rua, sex worker journal, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  66. Red Light Rio project, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  67. International Women’s Health Coalition, USA
  68. Association Program STACJA, Warsaw, Poland
  69. BesD, Berufsverband für erotische und sexuelle Dienstleistungen e.V., Germany
  70. Comitato per i Diritti Civili delle Prostitute Onlus, Pordenone, Italy
  71. Humanitas Prostitution Welfare Work, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
  72. Hearts on a Wire, Philadelphia, PA, USA
  73. La coalition pour les droits des travailleuses et travailleurs du sexe (Montréal, QC), Canada
  74. Federation for Women and Family Planning, Poland
  75. Etnoblog Associazione Interculturale - Trieste, Italy
  76. Shenzhen Xiyan Communication Centre, China
  77. BAYSWAN (Bay Area Sex Worker Advocacy Network), San Francisco
  78. SisterLove, Inc. (Atlanta, Georgia, USA & Witibank, South Africa)
  79. Caribbean Vulnerable Communities Coalition (CVC), Kingston, Jamaica
  80. Double Positive Foundation, Suriname
  81. Guyana Sex Work Coalition PiA Information und Beratung für Sexarbeiterinnnen, Österreich
  82. Sex Worker’s Outreach Project New Mexico
  83. Сharitable organization «All-Ukrainian League Legalife» ,Ukraine
  84. Sex Worker Outreach Project, Tucson AZ, USA
  85. Associazione Radicale Certi Diritti, Italy
  86. move e. V., Berlin/Germany
  87. BSD e. V., Berlin/Germany
  88. Realizing Sexual and Reproductive Justice Alliance (RESURJ)
  89. Balance Promocion para el Desarrollo y Juventud, Mexico
  90. SWAN, Supporting Women Alternative Network, Vancouver Society - Vancouver, BC Canada
  91. Sex Work Association of Jamaica
  92. Women With a Vision, New Orleans, USA
  93. Diverse Voices and Action for Equality, Fiji
  94. Transgender Resource Center, Hong Kong
  95. Anis - Instituto de Bioética, Direitos Humanos e Gênero, Brazil
  96. Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era (DAWN)
  97. Sex Workers Outreach Project - Las Vegas, NV, USA
  98. African Sex Workers Alliance (ASWA)
  99. Kenya Sex Workers Alliance(KESWA)
  100. MIT (Movimento Identità Transessuale) - Bologna - Italy
  101. Unzip the Lips Platform for HIV Key Affected Women and Girls (Asia Pacific)
  102. Ideadonna
  103. CATS Comite de Apoyo a las Trabajadoras del Sexo, SPAIN
  104. Social AIDS Commitee (SKA), Warsaw, Poland
  105. FIZ Fachstelle Frauenhandel und Frauenmigration, Zurich, Switzerland
  106. Prostitution Information Centre (PIC), Amsterdam, the Netherlands
  107. Arab Foundation for Freedoms and Equality, Beirut, Lebanon
  108. SIO Sex Workers Interest Organisation, Denmark
  109. Maria Magdalena, Project of the Health Department of¨the Canton St. Gallen, Switzerland
  110. Divergenti Festival Internazionale di cinema trans, Bologna, Italy
  111. Colectivo Hetaira, Spain
  112. Basis-Projekt, Beratungsstelle für Sexarbeiter, Hamburg, German
  113. HIV Ireland, Dublin, Ireland
  114. Asociación de Profesionales del Sexo - Aprosex, Spain
  115. Betty&Books Associazione Culturale - Bologna (Italy)
  116. SOPHIE BildungsRaum für Prostituierte (Austria)
  117. Lilith e. V. (i. G.), sex worker peer education project in the course of formation, Bielefeld, Germany
  118. Urgent Action Fund for Women’s Human Rights (UAF)
  119. Aids Hilfe Bern, Switzerland
  120. Observatório da Prostituição - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  121. COYOTE Los Angeles
  122. ISWFACE International Sex Worker Foundation for Art, Culture and Education
  123. Best Practices Policy Project, (USA)
  124. Fundación Triángulo. (España/Spain).
  125. COGAM Colectivo de Gays, Lesbianas, Transexuales y Bisexuales de Madrid (España/Spain)
  126. Sekswerk Nederland (NL)
  127. Animus Association Foundation, Sofia, Bulgaria
  128. International Public Association “Gender Perspectives”, Minsk, Belarus
  129. La Strada, Prague, Czech Republic,
  130. International Women’s Rights Centre “La Strada”, Chisinau, Moldova
  131. La Strada Foundation against Trafficking, Exploitation and Slavery, Warsaw, Poland
  132. Open Gate - Association for Action against Violence and Trafficking in Human Beings, Skopje, Macedonia
  133. International Women’s Rights Protection and Promotion Centre “La Strada”, Kyiv, Ukraine
  134. AIDS Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama, United States
  135. The Naked Truth, Canada
  136. Feministinen aloite - Feminist Initiative Finland, Feminist organization supporting sex workers' rights, Finland
  137. Acceptess-T, France
  138. Health Global Access Project (Health GAP), USA
  139. CSD-Piraten Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
  140. Asian American Legal Defense and Education Fund (USA)
  141. Associação Existências (Portugal)
  142. New Zealand Prostitutes’ Collective, Aotearoa/New Zealand
  143. New York Anti-Trafficking Network (NYATN), New York, USA
  144. Asian American Legal Defense and Education Fund (AALDEF), New York, USA
  145. The Seltzer Firm, New York, PLLC, New York, USA
  146. Program on Global Health and Human Rights, University of Southern California
  147. Rights Reporter Foundation, Hungary
  148. Durbar Mahila Samanwaya Committee, the organisation of sex workers in West Bengal , India
  149. The International Union of Sex Workers, UK
  150. Amra Padatik, the foot soldiers, the organisation of the sex workers Children,Kolkata,West Bengal India
  151. Komal Gandhar, the cultural wing of DMSC ,Kolkata,West BENGAL India
  152. Migrant Rights Centre Ireland, Dublin Ireland
  153. PION - Norwegian sexworkers rights organization.
  154. Organisations: Asociación Pro Derechos Humanos de Andalucía (APDHA), Andalucía, Spain
  155. TERRE DES FEMMES Schweiz, Bern Switzerland
  156. Balaram Dey Street Anandam, LGBTKH organisation, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
  157. USHA Multipurpose Cooperative Society,Ltda financial institute for the sex workers and run by the sex workers. Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
  158. Durbar DiSHA, Mohila Griha Sramik Samanwaya Committe, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
  159. Transgender Network Switzerland, Zurich, Switzerland
  160. Associazione Enzo Tortora Radicali Milano
  161. Rechtskomitee LAMBDA (RKL) (Austria)
  162. Austrian Society for Sexologies - ÖGS (Austria)
  163. Swiss Rainbow Families Association, Zurich, Switzerland
  164. PortoG, APDES, Portugal
  165. Sex Workers Alliance Ireland (SWAI), Ireland
  166. National Forum for Democracy and Development, Kathmandu Nepal
  167. Loom-Nepal, Kathmandu Nepal
  168. Migrant Sex Worker Project,Canada
  169. Butterfly: Asian and Migrant Sex Workers Network, Canada
  170. Association Fleur de Pavé, Lausanne, Switzerland
  171. Winnipeg Working Group for Sex Workers’ Rights, Canada
  172. Drodrolagi Movement, Fiji
  173. Asociación de Trabajadoras Sexuales MUJERES DEL SUR - PERÚ
  174. Tamaulipas Diversidad VIHDA Trans A.C., Mexico

INDIVIDUALS

  1. Dr Teela Sanders, Reader in Sociology, University of Leeds (UK)
  2. Katie de Long, author, former sex worker - US
  3. Alessandra Voutsinas, social worker, Palermo, Italy
  4. Sonia Corrêa, research associate at ABIA, co -chair of Sexuality Policy Watch, Brazil
  5. Paul J. McConnochie - Producer / Director / Animator - Vortex42Studios, Scotland, Denmark, Germany
  6. Professor Jane Scoular, Law School, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow UK
  7. Tanya Serisier, Lecturer in Criminology, Queen’s University Belfast, UK
  8. Eurydice Aroney, Senior Lecturer in Journalism, University of Technology, Sydney, (Aus)
  9. Caoimhe Mader McGuinness, PhD candidate at Queen Mary University of London (UK)
  10. Luca Stevenson, sex worker, coordinator ICRSE, UK
  11. Veronica Munk, coordinator TAMPEP-Germany
  12. Dr Alison Phipps, Director of Gender Studies, Sussex University (UK)
  13. Ali Can Kalan, MA East European Studies, IR Coordinator at Pink Life
  14. Stewart Cunningham, PhD candidate, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK
  15. Eva Klambauer, PhD candidate at King’s College London(UK)
  16. Dr. Lucy Neville, Senior Lecturer in Criminology, Middlesex University (UK)
  17. Professor Phil HUbbard, University of Kent (UK)
  18. Laura Connelly, PhD Student, University of Leeds (UK)
  19. Dr. Billie Lister, Senior Lecturer in Criminology, Leeds Beckett University (UK)
  20. Alex Feis-Bryce, National Ugly Mugs
  21. Francisca Funk, Sexworker, Germany Frankfurt
  22. Dr P.G. Macioti, Hydra e.V., Berlin, Germany
  23. Mark McCormack, Co-Director, Centre for Sex, Gender and Sexualities, Durham University (UK)
  24. Irina Maslova- - Chair Coordination Committee on prevention and fight against HIV/AIDS
  25. in the Russian Federation and Leader Silver Rose
  26. Laetitia, Harm reduction and sexual health educator (Portugal)
  27. Dr Jane Pitcher, Loughborough University, UK
  28. Silke Suck, sysadmin, ex sexworker, Germany
  29. Dan Gallin, Global Labour Institute, Geneva, Switzerland
  30. Filipa Alvim, Anthropologist, Lisbon, Portugal
  31. Cameron Watt, student and community activist, Napier University, UK
  32. Simona & Ramona, performance art duo, Bucharest, Romania
  33. Dr Anne Mulhall, Director, Centre for Gender, Culture & Identities, University College Dublin
  34. Sonja Dolinsek, PhD candidate, University Erfurt (Germany)
  35. Kolja Sulimma, Engineer, Frankfurt (Germany)
  36. Dr Kate Hardy, Lecturer in Work and Employment Relations, University of Leeds (UK)
  37. Margaret Corvid, sex worker and writer (UK)
  38. Dr Agata Dziuban,Faculty Member, Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland)
  39. Roxana V, sex worker (Romania/Hungary)
  40. Dr Heidi Hoefinger, Gender/ Sexuality Studies, Institute of South East Asian Affairs, (Thailand)
  41. Magne Pihl, Socialworker, Copenhagen, Denmark
  42. Sarah Jenny Bleviss, M.P.S., co-founder and organizer, Sex Workers Outreach Project - New York City (SWOP-NYC), member, U.S. Women and PReP Working Group and U.S. Center for Sex Work Research and Policy (USA)
  43. Derek J. Demeri, South Jersey Regional Director, New Jersey Red Umbrella Alliance
  44. Janet Duran, North Jersey Regional Director, New Jersey Red Umbrella Alliance
  45. Amber Dawn, former sex worker, educator and author, Vancouver, Canada
  46. Ekaterina, sex-worker, Russia, Spain, France, Norway, Sweden, Belgium, Finland, Italy
  47. Jury Kalikov, The Head of AIDS Information & Support Centre, Tallinn, Estonia
  48. Stefanie Lohaus, Journalist, Missy Magazine, Germany
  49. Alex Cooper, MA Critical Gender Studies, USA
  50. Dafna Rachok, co-editor, Political Critique Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
  51. Rachel Carlisle, Sex Worker, Volunteer Member SWOP Denver
  52. Toni Mac, sex worker, activist with SWOU, London, UK
  53. Remi Soileau, Sex Worker, New Orleans, USA
  54. Sabrina Chap - Writer, Musician and Mental Health Activist
  55. Minerva Valenzuela. Former sex worker, Cabaret artist. Mexico.
  56. Professor Paul Braterman, MA, DPhil., DSc
  57. Helga Pregesbauer, Writer,Vienna
  58. Emy Fem-Sexworker, performer and Sexworkactivist-berlin, germany
  59. Marlon Taylor, President Sex Work Association of Jamaica
  60. Emily Kissner, MAT, Former Volunteer, Veronica’s Voice, Kansas City, KS,USA
  61. Katherine Koster, Director of Communications - Sex Workers Outreach Project - USA
  62. Shira Hassan, MSW, former sex worker and past Executive Director of Young Women’s Empowerment Project, Chicago, IL
  63. Daniela Danna, researcher at the University of Milan, Italy
  64. Tanuja Jagernauth, former Board Member and adult ally with Young Women’s Empowerment Project
  65. Cyd Nova, Programs Director at St James Infirmary, San Francisco, CA sex worker and transgender activist, USA
  66. Ronald Weitzer, Professor of Sociology, George Washington University, USA -- research on sex work in the USA and internationally, expert testimony, author of two books and many scholarly journal articles on prostitution, pornography, and human trafficking
  67. Seth Holmes, PhD, MD, Martin Sisters Endowed Chair Assistant Professor, University of California Berkeley, USA
  68. Alice Calin, writer, Romania
  69. Brigitte Obrist, Ex-Seworker, Switzerland
  70. Sharon Oselin, PhD, Assistant Professor of Sociology, University of California, Riverside
  71. Lindsay Roth, MSW, Sex Worker, Board Chair of Sex Workers Outreach Project - USA
  72. Borche Bozhinov, male sex worker, Macedonia
  73. Ntokozo Yingwana, sex worker rights scholar-activist, Global Network of Sex Work Projects (NSWP) Africa Correspondent (South Africa)
  74. Jenny Webber GMB member, Ruskin College
  75. Marjan Wijers, MA, LL.Mresearcher, consultant and trainer human rights and human trafficking, former president of the European Experts Group on trafficking in human beings, established by the European Commission, Utrecht, The Netherlands
  76. Alicja Palecka, sociologist, Warsaw, Poland
  77. Jody Paterson, communications strategist and former executive director of Peers Victoria, Victoria, B.C., Canada
  78. Charna Albert, BA University of Chicago, Public Health Researcher
  79. Ralston Beckford
  80. Blake Nemec, Former Sex Worker, Chicago, Illinois
  81. Giulia Garofalo Geymonat, PhD, Researcher, University of Lund, Sweden
  82. Kerry Porth, former Sex Worker, Independent Researcher, Chair, Pivot Legal Society, Vancouver, Canada
  83. Meg Munoz, Former Sex Worker and Domestic Sex Trafficking Survivor, Founder of Abeni (CA)
  84. Anna Marya Smith, journalist, performing artist, sex worker, Triple X society co-director, Vancouver B.C.
  85. Laura Dilley, Executive Director PACE Society, Vancouver, Canada.
  86. Daniel Rodriguez, Director SWOP Los Angeles, Community Organizer HOOK Online, current sex worker
  87. Dr Calum Bennachie, Programme and Operations Co-ordinator, New Zealand Prostitutes Collective
  88. Manta Alexandra, PhD student, CEU
  89. Dr. Paul J. Maginn, Programme Co-ordinator (Urban/Regional Planning), University of Western Australia.
  90. Tara Birl , Former Board Chair, Sex Workers Outreach Project
  91. Carol Leigh, Sex Worker Rights Activist
  92. Erica Magenta, sex worker and youth-focused peer educator at Respect Inc, Queensland, Australia
  93. Nandita Sharma, Associate Professor of Sociology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii
  94. Michelle Aldrich, retired meeting planner, Original Coyote Member, San Francisco, CA
  95. Carolina M. Ramos, Esq, Human Rights Attorney
  96. Lissa M. Knudsen, MPH, New Mexico Health Policy Advocate
  97. Pardis Mahdavi, Associate Professor of Anthropology, Pomona College, Los Angeles, California
  98. Adrien Lawyer, Co-Director, Transgender Resource Center of New Mexico
  99. Erica Elena Berman, current sex worker, director of SF Bay Area Sex Worker Film and Art Festival, and founder and director of Whore’s Bath, a sex worker only healing arts project.
  100. Dan Bigg, Director, Chicago Recovery Alliance, Chicago IL, USA.
  101. Dr. Maria Wersig, Hannover University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Germany
  102. Liz Hilton Empower Thailand
  103. Marianne Schweizer, coordinatrice ASPASIE, Switzerland
  104. Almuth Waldenberger, sex work historian and anthropologist, Vienna
  105. Justyna Struzik, sociologist, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland
  106. Dennis van Wanrooij, programme associate, Red Umbrella Fund (NL)
  107. Shane Anthony Petzer C.S.A.W (SA), M.D.O. Ashoka Fellow, MA Student
  108. Sylvie Mathys, lawyer, Présidente Association Boulevards, Geneva, Switzerland
  109. Sarah Kingston, Lecturer in Criminology, The University of Lancaster & Sex Worker Support Volunteer Streetlink Preston, UK
  110. Mistress Geneva active worker and volunteer support for Aspasie Geneva Switzerland
  111. Holger Fehmel, lawyer, Germany
  112. Olivia Benyoussef, programme officer, prévention et formations, Groupe sida Genève, Switzerland
  113. Ruxandra Costescu, researcher, non-academic feminist, Bucharest, Romania
  114. Petra Timmermans, (ex)sex worker, activist, lecturer on sex work policies in the Netherlands, member of SWexpertise, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  115. Wuddri Rim, Aids Hilfe Bern
  116. Borislav Gerasimov, Communications officer, La Strada International and Global Alliance against Traffic in Women, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  117. Anna Ratecka, Faculty Member, Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland)
  118. Neil Howard, Marie Curie Fellow, European University Institute
  119. Sandro Cattacin, professor, Institute for sociological research, University of Geneva
  120. Sherry HUI, activist, Executive Officer, JJJ Association(HK).
  121. Gudrun Greb, coordinator of ragazza e.V. Hamburg, Germany
  122. Christian Groes-Green, Anthropologist, Associate Professor, Roskilde University, Denmark
  123. Jo Vearey, Associate Professor, University of the WItwatersrand, South Africa
  124. Pippa Grenfell, Research Fellow, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
  125. Paula Riedemann, Project Coordinator, Ban Ying Coordination and Counselling Center against Trafficking in Persons, Berlin, Germany
  126. Jenny Coetzee, Co-Head of Prevention in Key Populations, Perinatal HIV Research Unit, Soweto, South Africa and Medical Research Council of South Africa National Health Scholarship PhD Candidate.
  127. Theodora Becker, PhD Student and Sex Worker, Berlin Germany
  128. Amalia Jurj, social work student, Romania
  129. Dr. Katherine Allison, Politics, University of Glasgow, UK
  130. Nicola Mai, Professor of Sociology and Migration Studies, London Metropolitan University, UK
  131. Ine Vanwesenbeeck, Professor of Sexual Development, Diversity and Health, Utrecht University; and Senior Advisor at Rutgers, Knowledge Centre for Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights, Utrecht, the Netherlands
  132. Kohoutek, private
  133. Dr Richard de Visser, University of Sussex , UK
  134. Laura Oso, Professor of Sociology, Universidade da Coruña, Spain
  135. Noëmi Landolt, Journalist, Zurich Switzerland
  136. Sex work Projects Programme, Aids Fonds, the Netherlands
  137. Onkokame Mosweu, Male Sex Worker, BA (Hons) Law and Research, Botswana, Africa
    Steen Schapiro, filmmaker, spokesperson for Seksualpolitisk Forum / Forum for sexual politics, Denmark
  138. Eini Carina, screenwriter and feminist activist, Denmark
  139. Sylvie Mathys, attorney, President of Boulevards, an association aiming to defend and promote the rights of street sex workers , Geneva, Switzerland
  140. Daniel Seiler, President European Lesbian and Gay Manager Association
  141. Sharlene Kessna-Duncan, Nurse/Project Coordinator.Parish HIV/AIDS Association. Jamaica,working with sex workers
  142. Nadia van der Linde, Coordinator, Red Umbrella Fund, the Netherlands
  143. Linda Kristiansen, Selfemployed, member of Seksualpolitisk Forum / Forum for sexual politics, Denmark
  144. Ashit BK, President, Young Professional Development Society Nepal (YPDSN), PO Box 19243, Kathmandu, Nepal.
  145. Dr Tuppy Owens (Sex Therapist)of the TLC Trust where Disabled Men and Women find Responsible Sexual Services
  146. Marie Bruvik Heinskou, Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, University of Copenhagen; Denmark
  147. Ursula Probst, Anthropologist, Berlin, Germany
  148. Erman Dolmacı, Queer Cyprus Activist, Cyprus
  149. Ida Lobba-Schönfeldt, Streetworker, Hamburg, Germany
  150. Lina María Pinzón Ruiz, Fitnesstrainer, Hamburg, Germany
  151. Gladys Adriana Becerra, Lawyer and Independent Researcher,MA in Critical Gender Studies, Colombia
  152. Gosia Stachowiak, outreach worker, Hamburg, Germany
  153. Valentina Duelli, Student
  154. Derya Buket, Istanbul, Graphic Designer
  155. Dr. Melinda Chateauvert, University of Pennsylvania, author, Sex Workers Unite! A History of the movement from Stonewall to SlutWalk
  156. Alexandre Teixeira, Psychologist and PhD Researcher Porto University (Portugal).
  157. Dr Sharron A. FitzGerald, Academic, Munich, Germany
  158. Fabienne Freymadl, Sexarbeiterin, Politische Sprecherin, Berufsverband für erotische und sexuelle Dienstleistungen e.V., Berlin, Germany
  159. Martine Collumbien, Senior Lecturer in Sexual Health Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
  160. Mark Gordon, Secular Activist, Switzerland
  161. Nanna W. Gotfredsen, director, Gadejuristen // The Danish Street Lawyers, Copenhagen, Denmark
  162. Giovanna Gilges, MA Gender Studies, Germany
  163. Dr. Jill McCracken, University of South Florida St. Petersburg; SWOP-Tampa Bay, USA
    Yiğit AYDIN, sex worker, activist, Glasgow-SCOTLAND
    Ewelina Ciaputa, sociologist, Kraków, Poland
  164. Anne Wizorek, Consultant, Author, Feminist activist, Berlin, Germany
  165. Dorothee Schmidt, Historikerin, Germany
  166. Holly Richardson, Massachusetts, USA
  167. Dr Zuzanna Dziuban, research fellow, Vienna Wiesenthal Institute for Holocaust Studies, Austria
  168. Anna Forbes, MSS, Maryland, USA
  169. Lizzie Seal, Senior Lecturer in Criminology, University of Sussex
  170. Emre Busse, Curator & Director, Berlin, Germany
  171. Bo Jensen, M.Sc. and scholar in the history of prostitution, Denmark
  172. Tamara O'Doherty, PhD Candidate, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, BC, Canada
  173. Semih Togay, student, Istanbul, TURKEY
  174. Fabio Casagrande, M.A. Social Work, Lecturer, Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Business & Social Sciences, Department Social Work, Germany
  175. CARRÉ Jean-Michel, film director
  176. Ferhat YILDIZ, LGBTI Rights activist, sex worker, ISTANBUL, TURKEY
  177. Elisa Ludwig, Project Manager, LEFÖ-IBF (Intervention Center for Trafficked Women), Vienna Austria
  178. Eylül Yıldız, trans*-sex worker, Eskişehir-TURKEY
  179. Dilara Akarcesme, student, editor at HOSI Salzburg (Homosexual Initiative), Salzburg, Austria
  180. AV Flox, writer, California, United States
  181. Njáll Hvalreki, writer, former programmer for Sexworker CC-debit systems, Germany.
  182. Megan Grime, researcher, Decision Science, Strathclyde University, Scotland.
  183. Gregory Mitchell, PhD Assistant Professor of Women’s, Gender and Sexuality Studies, Williams College, Williamstown, MA, USA
  184. Julie Ruvolo, Editor, Red Light Rio project, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  185. Kerwin Kaye, Assistant Professor of Sociology, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT, USA
  186. Katrina Pacey, Executive Director, Pivot Legal Society
  187. Ellen Berger, alternative Körperwahrnehmung, Seminare, Deutschland
  188. Katharina Beclin, Assistant Professor for Criminology, University of Vienna
  189. Lorena Jaume-Palasí, Political Philosophy, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
  190. Carla Corsosex worker andwriter, President Comitato per i Diritti Civili delle Prostitute Pordenone, Italy
  191. Pia Covre sex worker founder of Comitato per i diritti Civili Delle Prostitute, Pordenone, Italy
  192. Dr. Emily van der Meulen, Associate Professor, Department of Criminology, Ryerson University, Canada
  193. Dr. Robert Heynen, Assistant Professor, Department of Communication Studies, York University, Canada
  194. Mag. Julischka Stengele, former sex worker, artist, activist and writer, Vienna, Austria
  195. Flavio Lenz Cesar, journalist, Davida, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  196. Friederike Strack, sociologist, Hydra and Davida, Berlin, Germany
  197. Dr Zuzanna Dziuban, research fellow, Vienna Wiesenthal Institute for Holocaust Studies, Austria
  198. Dr. Svati P. Shah, Associate Professor, Department of Women’s, Gender and Sexuality Studies, University of Massachusetts, Amherst
  199. Petra Östergren, PhD student, Social Anthropology, Lund University, Sweden
  200. Nicole D. McFadyen, PhD(c), Social Anthropology, York University, Canada
  201. Daniel Seiler, Director, Swiss Aids Federation, Switzerland
  202. Ralf Neugebauer, Jurist, Cologne, Germany
  203. Ray Lam, Male Sex Worker, China
  204. Liliane Maury Pasquier, MP; Switzerland
  205. Carla Sabrina Marenco, Venice, Italy
  206. Kay Garnellen, sexworker, Berlin
  207. Camelia Badea, anthropologist, Romania
  208. Alexandra Oliveira, Professor at University of Porto (Portugal)
  209. Fiona Gilbertson
  210. Kristen DiAngelo, Executive Director Sex Workers Outreach Project, Sacramento, CA, USA
  211. Christine Nagl, Österreich
  212. Rainer Pommrich, teacher, Germany
  213. Andray Patterson, Volunteer, Guyana Sex Work Coalition
  214. Jordan Flaherty, Television Producer, TeleSUR English News Network
  215. Simon Kowalewski, speaker for equalisation, Pirate faction, Berlin Parliament
  216. Laura Lee, sex worker and sex workers’ rights advocate, Sex Workers Alliance Ireland
  217. Cracey Fernandes, Co-Chairman, Guyana Sex Work Coalition
  218. Patrick Lalor - Human Rights Advocate and Sex Work Projects Supporter.
  219. Olena Tsukerman, former sex worker, Ukraine
  220. Raven Bowen, MA, (crim)-Program Manager SPACES Project, University of British Columbia, Canada
  221. Annalee Lepp, University of Victoria and GAATW Canada
  222. Molly Merryman, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Sociology and Coordinator of LGBT Studies, Kent State University, United States
  223. Stephanie Klee, sexworker, Berlin/Germany
  224. Jasna Lisha Strick, author, feminist activist, Berlin, Germany
  225. Matteo Torcinovich, Venice, Italy
  226. JM Kirby, Human Rights Advocate, New York, USA
  227. Jennifer Tyburczy, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Feminist Studies and Director of LGBTQ Minor, University of California, Santa Barbara, United States
  228. Karen Gardiner, former sex worker, Sex Workers Outreach Project New York
  229. Daniel Hellmann, artist & sex worker, Berlin, Germany
  230. Quentin Barthassat, student social science, Lausanne, Suisse
  231. Isabelle Johansson, PhD-candidate, Lund University, Sweden
  232. Rev. Elder Pat Bumgardner, Global Justice Institute and Metropolitan Community Churches
  233. Lena Morgenroth, sex worker, Berlin, Germany
  234. Helga Amesberger, social scientist, Institute of Conflict Research, Vienna
  235. Jan Glogau, student, Potsdam, Germany
  236. Dr. Mithu M. Sanyal, author and broadcaster, Germany
  237. Charlotte Jahnz, student, Germany
  238. Roos Schippers, sex worker, member of SWexpertise, Netherlands
  239. Andrea Knabe-Schönemann, certified business manager, Berlin
  240. Sven Gramstadt, PhD candidate, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany
  241. Lene tymoshenko, former sexworker Berlin germany
  242. Paula Marija Balov, student, feminist activist, Berlin, Germany
  243. Raik Lorenz, student, Leipzig, Germany
  244. Melissa Gira Grant, journalist and author, former sex worker, New York, United States
  245. Eve Rickert, author and entrepreneur, Canada
  246. Franklin Veaux, author, United States
  247. May-Len Skilbrei, Professor Department of Criminology and Sociology of Law, University of Oslo, Norway
  248. Boughalem Faterha Suisse
  249. Rhett Epler, M.A. University of Wyoming
  250. Gus Grannan, harm reductionist and member of SWOP-Philadelphia, USA
  251. Hans Christian Voigt, sociologist, human rights activist in Vienna, Austria
  252. John Michael Lopez, social activist, Germany/USA
  253. Kristy Choi, German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) Fellow, Berlin, Germany
  254. A.D. Burns, author, RWA, RRWA,Missouri, United States
  255. J. C. Maia, author, therapist, Ponta Delgada, Portugal
  256. Jean Mabbs, proofreader and editor, UK
  257. Cassandra Damm, LCSW, Chicago, IL
  258. Arthur Paris, Chicago, IL
  259. Kelli Dorsey, former Executive Director of Different Avenues, Washington, DC, USA
  260. Jane Deaux, Sex Workers Outreach Project, New Orleans Chapter
  261. Louise LO, Female Sex Workers Outreach Officer, JJJ Association, HK
  262. Cynthia Rothschild, Independent activist and former AIUSA Board Member, New York, USA
  263. SWexpertise 21.NL, Dutch Platform for the Improvement of the Position of Sex Workers, The Hague, The Netherlands.
  264. SHOP, The Hague, The Netherlands
  265. M.A. Scali, Manager of SHOP The Hague, The Netherlands
  266. Kristina Mahnicheva, the member of Tais Plus, strong ally, Kyrgyzstan
  267. Dr Matthew Weait, Professor of Law and Policy, former member, Technical Advisory Group, GlobalCommission on HIV and the Law, London, United Kingdom.
  268. Christian Klein, liberal politician, Luxembourg
  269. Johanna Weber, Germany, Berlin - Sexworker and politcal spokeswomen of German Sexworker Organisation BesD
  270. Dr. Fuensanta Gual, sex workers support committee, CATS Spain
  271. Giuliana Gilges-Richards, text trainee, Germany, Düsseldorf
  272. Jennifer J. Reed, Sociology Ph.D. Candidate, University of Nevada-Las Vegas, USA
  273. Dr. LUK Kit-ling, Lecturer, Hong Kong Community College, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University - teaching gender and sexuality subjects and working on research on sexuality education
  274. Frankie Mullin, journalist, London, UK
  275. J. Lange, Germany
  276. Marta Zoppetti, Venice, Italy
  277. Emiliano Cibin, graphic designer, Venice, Italy
  278. Julia Stempel, tantric bodywork, Cologne Germany
  279. Aya de Leon, novelist, lecturer African American Studies Dept. UC Berkeley, California, USA
  280. Kendy Yim, Hong Kong
  281. Daughtie Ogutu, African Sex Workers Alliance, Regional Coordinator
  282. Anna Bongiovanni, Minneapolis MN United States
  283. Melanie Schwarz, Sexworker,Bielefeld, Germany
  284. Phelister Abdalla - Kenya Sex Workers Alliance (KESWA)
  285. Gábor Szegedi - Research Fellow, Vienna Wiesenthal Institute for Holocaust Studies, Vienna
  286. Franco Boldini operatore sociale - Modena - Italia
  287. Birgit Sauer, Professor of Political Science, University of Vienna
  288. Cristiano Berti, artist, Jesi, Italy
  289. Pieke Biermann, former sex worker, writer
  290. Christa Ammann, Social Worker, Member of the legislative council of Berne, Switzerland
  291. Soraya Simoes, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ)
  292. Observatório da Prostituição - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
  293. Casper Hunnerup Dahl, part-time lecturer, University of Copenhagen, Ph.D.
  294. Hazwany binti Jamaluddin, statistician, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  295. Mariska Majoor, (ex) sex worker, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
  296. Tamara Vukasovic, ASTRA Anti Trafficking Action, Serbia
  297. Marija Andjelkovic, ASTRA Anti Trafficking Action, Serbia
  298. Ivana Radovic, ASTRA Anti Trafficking Action, Serbia
  299. Cynthia El Khoury, MPH, Lebanon
  300. Philipp Oelwein, IT Consultant, Hamburg
  301. Elouise Abandon, Sexworker, Stuttgart, Deutschland
  302. Chiara Bertone, Associate Professor in Sociology of Culture, Univ. Eastern Piedmont, Italy
  303. Porpora Marcasciano, President of MIT (Movimento Identità Transessuale), Bologna, Italy
  304. Jad Adams, Historian, UK
  305. Antonella Ciccarelli, operatrice sociale, MIT (Movimento Identità Transessuale), Bologna, Italy
  306. Francisco Majuelos Martínez, Antropólogo, Universidad de Almería, España.
  307. Stefan Lucke, M.A., PhD Student of Human Sexuality, San Francisco, USA
  308. Alexander Hofmann (Germany)
  309. Veronika-Maria Schmid, accountant, Munich, Germany
  310. Nadine Schreiterer, Sozialpädagogin, München
  311. Sabine Skutella, social worker, Munich, Germany
  312. Erin Sanders-McDonagh, Senior Lecturer in Sociology, Middlesex University, London, UK
  313. Tomer Barnea, PhD candidate at the Université de Genève, Switzerland
  314. Maria Michalski, Social Worker Munich, Germany
  315. Andrés Sarabia, PhD, Central European University, Hungary
  316. Marlon Lacsamana, Filipino Migrant Rights Advocate, The Hague, Kingdom of the Netherlands
  317. Mario Di Martino - Divergenti Festival internazionale di cinema trans - Bologna, Italy
  318. Marija Jozic, social worker, St. Gallen, Switzerland
  319. Niilas Helander, Artist, Berlin
  320. Cecilie Lolk Hjort, former sex worker, writer, Copenhagen, Denmark
  321. Iadrina, social worker, Frankfurt(Oder)/Berlin, Germany
  322. Christiane Perregaux, Université de Genève (Switzerland)
  323. Loris Fuschillo, Vicenza
  324. Artiom Zavadovschi, LGBT activist, Republic of Moldova
  325. Claire Hayward, PhD Student, London
  326. Agnès Boulmer, Everybody’s Perfect Film Festival, Geneva, Switzerland
  327. Jelena Seidel former sex worker, Copenhagen Denmark.
  328. Nicolás Acosta, PhD Student, Cultural Anthropology. Oulu, Finland
  329. Porpora Marcasciano, ex sex worker and President of M.I.T. Movimento Identità Transessuale, Bologna, Italy
  330. Sara Manfredi, Bologna, Italy
  331. Rayna Dimitrova, coordinator of outreach work, Bulgaria
  332. Boysan Yakar, LGBTI Rights Advocate, Mayoral Advisor - District Municipality of Şişli, Istanbul, Turkey
  333. Kendy Yim, Hong Kong
  334. Thierry Moosbrugger, roman-catholic theologue, basel, Switzerland
  335. Sara Thapa Magar, Young Key affected Population (YKAP Nepal), Program Coordinator
  336. Nicole Sanner, Sexworkerin, Düsseldorf-Germany
  337. Dr. Sumeeta Hasenbichler, Frau und Arbeit, Salzburg, Austria
  338. Ali Channon, Programme Officer in GBV and Sexual Diversity Rights, Johannesburg, South Africa
  339. Easthertrans, sexworker, the Netherlands
  340. Annie Tidbury, former Women’s Officer at University College London Union, UK
  341. Rita Alcaire, PhD Researcher in Human Rights and member of the Portuguese Network on Sex Work
  342. Michaela Engelmaier, Soziologin, Beratungsstelle f. Sexarbeiterinnen, Graz Austria
  343. Salome Kokoladze, Philosophy MA, Central European University, Batumi, Georgia/Budapest, Hungary.
  344. Chi Adanna Mgbako, Clinical Professor of Law and Director of the Walter Leitner International Human Rights Clinic, Fordham University School of Law School, New York. Author, To Live Freely in This World: Sex Worker Activism in Africa (NYU Press)
  345. Maaike van Groenestyn, SHOP/Spot 46, The Hague, The Netherlands
  346. Denise Tomasini-Joshi, attorney working in philantropy, New York
  347. Professor Ulrike Lembke, Law Faculty, University of Hamburg, Germany
  348. Sarah Oughton, citizen journalist, UK
  349. Joel Quirk, Associate Professor, University of the Witwatersrand
  350. Golde Carlsson, co-foundress Berufsverband erotische und sexuelle Dienstleistungen e. V., executive chairwoman at Lilith e. V. (i. G.), sex worker peer education project in the course of formation, Bielefeld, Germany
  351. Christiane Howe, researcher, Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany
  352. Mark Pendleton, Lecturer, School of East Asian Studies, The University of Sheffield
  353. Mareen Heying, historian, Ruhr-University Bochum/Università di Padova
  354. Anne Dölemeyer, researcher, Leipzig University, Germany
  355. Ghiwa Sayegh, Editor in Chief of Kohl: a Journal for Body and Gender Research, Lebanon
  356. Anne Burgmer, roman-catholic theologian, Switzerland
  357. Weronika Justyńska, LGBTQ activist NGO: Factory of Equality, Łódź, Poland
  358. Arianne Shahvisi, Lecturer in Ethics and Medical Humanities, Brighton and Sussex Medical School
  359. Irina Krause, social worker, Erfurt, Germany
  360. Kiesia Carmine, sex worker, Berlin / New Zealand
  361. Irina Stiop, Beratungsstelle f. Sexarbeiterinnen,Graz, Austria
  362. Natascha Wey, Switzerland
  363. Helga Bilitewski, Aktivistin, Berlin, Germany
  364. Astrid Gabb, Social Worker, Germany
  365. Amy, former sex worker, Scotland
  366. Anastacia Ryan, PhD researcher, University of Glasgow, UK
  367. Jan Lis, researcher, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Germany
  368. Estelle Pralong, Genève, Suisse
  369. Laurens Buijs, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands
  370. deema kaedbey, PhD in gender and sexuality studies, Kohl: Journal for Body and Gender Research, Lebanon
  371. Zohra Moosa, The Netherlands
  372. Béatrice Aebersold, Bern, Switzerland
  373. Y. Spada, transgender rights activist, Berlin, Germany
  374. Arikia Millikan, Founder and EIC of LadyBits, Brooklyn, New York, USA
  375. Barbara Zwahlen, Bern, Switzerland
  376. Lawrence Mamabolo, Registered Counsellor, independent/private practice. South Africa
  377. B. Herzog, Social Worker, Leipzig, Germany
  378. Cemil Inangil, social worker, Munich, Germany
  379. Dirk Schuck M.A., Political scientist, University of Leipzig, Germany
  380. Dearbhla Quinn, Student of Equality Studies, University College Dublin
  381. Nicolas Barnes, Sex Worker & Nurse, Belgium.
  382. Jasper Lenderink, Consultant sustainability, Amsterdam, Netherlands
  383. Jenny Olaya-Peickner,Social Worker, Vienna, Austria
  384. Sally Armstrong, Housing Professional and Sex Worker Ally, UK
  385. Moriah Oxnard, Nurse, New York, NY
  386. Marie-Eve Volkoff-PeschonretraitéeGeneva Switzerland
  387. Marianne Jonker, Swexpertise, Amsterdam, Netherlands
  388. Norma Jean Almodovar Sex worker rights activist Los Angeles CA
  389. Alexandra Holmes, MA student, Freie Universitaet, Berlin
  390. Amanda Mercedes Gigler, Director of Philanthropic Partnerships and Communications, Mama Cash, Amsterdam, Netherlands
  391. Lady Tanja Hamburg Sexworker, Germany
  392. Maria K. Powell, JD, LLM, Sex Worker Advocate and Articling Student, NB, Canada
  393. Soraya Silveira Simões, Anthropologist, Professor Instituto de Pesquisa e Planejamento Urbano e Regional- IPPUR-UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  394. Jess Rousse, cleaning lady, France
  395. Pietro Saitta, researcher and lecturer in Sociology, University of Messina (Italy)
  396. Heather Berg, PhD Candidate, Santa Barbara, CA
  397. Shaun Kirven, Human Rights Activist, Kathmandu Nepal
  398. Jack Harrow, author/human, Seattle, WA
  399. Melisa Stephen, BA Northwestern University, activist
  400. Elene Lam, activist, Canada
  401. Hella Dee, sex worker (NL)
  402. Faika El-Nagashi, Human Rights Activist, The Green Party Vienna
  403. Marissa Ram, Esq., LGBTQ Rights and Immigration Attorney, New York, New York, USA
  404. Olaf Göbel, Tantra-Massage-Teacher, Velbert, Germany
  405. Marina Kronkvist, Sexsibilitycoach, Founder of Ritual Play, Finland
  406. Suzanne B Seltzer, The Seltzer Firm, PLLC, NY, NY USA
  407. Annie Temple, Sex Worker, The Naked Truth, Surrey BC Canada
  408. Frannie Blew Velvet, Sex Worker/Performance Artist, Liberty, Tennessee, USA
  409. Frank Cipriani, Activist, Florida, USA
  410. Erika S. Becker, Frankfurt/Main, Germany
  411. Flora Pagan, social services worker, Victoria BC, Canada
  412. Anne Lieberman, Program Officer, Sexual Health and Rights, American Jewish World Service, NY, NY
  413. Ana Mohr, outreach worker, CARUSEL, Romania
  414. Dr. Marian Ursan, Executive Director, CARUSEL, Romania
  415. Dr. Susanne Dodillet, Gothenburg University, Sweden
  416. Niina Vuolajarvi, PhD student, University of Eastern Finland & Rutgers University, United States
  417. Agnes Foldi, Human Rights Activist, Hungary
  418. Matilda Bickers, SWOP-PDX, STROLL, SWOC Portland, Portland, OR, USA
  419. Sunny Maguire, LCSW, NYC
  420. Niamh Brown, PhD Student, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom
  421. Anushka Aqil, Public Health, GA, USA
  422. Marlen Löffler, PhD candidate, University Frankfurt/Main (Germany)
  423. Mathilde Bouvard, Artist, Bretagne France
  424. Chris Atchison, Research Associate, University of Victoria, Canada
  425. Jessica Whitbread, AIDS Activist, Toronto, Canada
  426. Alice Iancu, Lecturer, Romania
  427. Patrick John Burnett, PhD Candidate, University of British Columbia, Canada
  428. Catherine Fertel, feminist and activist with the LGBTQ Task Force to Undo Mass Incarceration & Institutional Racism, Woodstock, NY, USA
  429. Frands Sørensen, Denmark
  430. Ahi Wi-Hongi, Community Liaison at New Zealand Prostitutes’ Collective, ONTOP - Ongoing National Transgender Outreach Project, Sex Worker. Wellington, Aotearoa/New Zealand
  431. Raviva Hanser, Program Associate, Sexual Health & Rights, American Jewish World Service
  432. LiLi K. Bright, UK
  433. Noemi Katona, PhD student, Humboldt University, Berlin (Germany)
  434. Dee-Amela Conti, Secretary of Respect Inc, Australia
  435. Sara Regensburger, Archaeologist and activist, CT, USA
  436. Paulo Anjos, Social Worker, Portugal
  437. Maria Lobo, Psychologist, Portugal
  438. Elizabeth Pride, paralegal, Philadelphia, PA, USA
  439. Teresa Dobney, Health Resource Specialist, Volunteer at Project Safe, Philadelphia, PA, U
  440. Rebecca Hiles, The Frisky Fairy Sex Education and Coaching, Sex Worker, Herndon, VA US
  441. Juhu Thukral, Esq, Human Rights Lawyer and Advocate for Women and LGBTQ People, USA
  442. Florrie Burke, Consultant and Chair Emeritus, Freedom Network USA
  443. Sealing Cheng, Associate Professor, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  444. Tessa de Ryck, human rights worker and trainer, Indonesia
  445. Magdalena Simstich, Gender Student, sw & Activist, Germany
  446. Ulrike Rothe, NRW, Sexarbeiterin
  447. Leyla Safta-Zecheria, PhD Candidate, Central European University Budapest
  448. Agnieszka Walendzik-Ostrowska, PhD, Poland
  449. Dr. Elisabeth Greif, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria
  450. Rhoda Tretow, Feministisches Institut, Hamburg
  451. Dr. Meike Lauggas, university lecturer and freelance counselor, Vienna
  452. Karina Laursen, prosex forum member, Denmark
  453. Fiona Montagud, Calala Fondo de Mujeres, España
  454. Sinem Hun, Human Rights Lawyer, Turkey
  455. Nihan Erdoğan, Human Rights Lawyer, Turkey
  456. Evelyn Probst, Psychologist, Vienna/Austria
  457. Eva Kaufmann, Councelor, Austria
  458. Christien Rijks, social worker for sex workers, SHOP, The Hague, The Netherlands
  459. Jo Bindman, former activist, UK
  460. Ferenc David - Biopolitics expert, Hungary, Budapest
  461. Laura María Agustín, UK, Sweden, Spain
  462. Petra Gugler, Graz, Österreich
  463. Ovidiu Anemtoaicei, PhD, HECATE Publishing House, Bucharest, Romania.
  464. Pia Poppenreiter, Entrepreneur, Berlin, Germany
  465. Adina Manea, Programmes Director, Youth for Youth Foundation, Romania
  466. Dr Kathryn McGarry, Centre for Rights, Recognition and Redistribution, Maynooth University, Ireland
  467. Dr Soma Roy, PhD, Research Officer, Durbar Mahila Samanwaya Committee, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
  468. Catherine Stephens, sex worker for 15 years
  469. Mónica Aragonés Padilla, Sociologist, Barcelona, Spain
  470. Jessica Cusell Fernández, Barcelona, Spain
  471. Leila Ghorbel, Translator, Barcelona, Spain
  472. Przemysław Hasiński, Łódź, Polska
  473. Andrés Lekanger, outreach worker, PION, Norway
  474. Morten Sortodden, sexworkers rights activist, PION, Norway
  475. Monica Clef, board member PION, Norway
  476. Jean Cristal, board member, PION, Norway
  477. Kristin (workname), sexworker, Norway
  478. Alexandra (workname), sexworker, Norway
  479. Emilie (sexworker), sexworker, Norway
  480. Camilla Winther-Griffenfeldt, activist, Norway
  481. Mr. $,male sexworker, Oslo, Norway
  482. Mr. Tony, male sexworker, Oslo, Norway
  483. Mr. AMIR, male sexworker, Oslo Norway
  484. Rico, male masseur and sexworker, Oslo, Norway
  485. Mr. Marco, male sexworker, Norway
  486. Miss Jeanette, female sexworker, Norway
  487. Miss Donna, transexual sexworker, Norway
  488. Paramita Chowdhury, Project Coordinator, Amra Padatik, DMSc, Kolkata India
  489. Esther Wortmann-Knoth, communication consultant, Germany
  490. Abhijit Lodh, Program Coordinator, Durbar Disha Mahila Griha Sramik Samanwaya Committee, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
  491. Sergio Lo Giudice, Italian MP, Italy
  492. Jessica Cusell Fernández Barcelona
  493. Ratan Dolui, Assistant Secretary, Amra Padatik, organisation of the children of sex workers, DMSC, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
  494. Puja Roy, Director, TI DMSC, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
  495. Letonde Hermine Gbedo, cultural mediator, Etnoblog Interculural association, Trieste, Italy
  496. Rama Debnath, Outreach Worker, working in the organisation for the last 14 years of DMSC, West Bengal, India
  497. Mampi Halder, Amra Padatik, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
  498. Sampa Basak, Amra Padatik, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
  499. Stefanie Grabatsch, BASIS-Projekt Hamburg, Germany
  500. Momita Naskar, Secretary, Durbar Disha, Kolkata, India
  501. Baby Naskar, President, Durbar Disha, Kolkata, West Bengal
  502. Sintu Bagui, Secretary Anandam, Balaram dey Street, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
  503. Antonella Ius, ideadestroyingmuros, Italy
  504. Marty Huber, queer-feminist activist, Vienna Austria
  505. Dr Kiril Sharapov, Senior Lecturer, University of Bedfordshire
  506. Henrik List, author, Copenhagen, Denmark
  507. Matthias Lehmann, Doctoral Researcher, Queen’s University Belfast, United Kingdom
  508. Stefan Benedik, Centre for Gender History, University of Graz, Austria
  509. Elisabeth Armstrong, Program for the Study of Women and Gender, Smith College, US
  510. Professor Kamala Kempadoo, York University, Toronto Canada
  511. Boglarka Fedorko, Human Rights, Sex Worker Rights, Trans* Rights activist
  512. Agnes Foldi, Chairwoman, Association of Hungarian Sex Workers
  513. Istvan Kobanyai, Social Counsellor
  514. Marta Gergovics, Social Counsellor
  515. Jacqueline Suter, Bern, Switzerland
  516. Dr. Henry Hohmann, Trans* activist, Bern, Switzerland
  517. Professor Deborah Brock, York University, Canada
  518. Dr. Sarah Speck, Visiting Professor Universität Tübingen, Germany
  519. Judith Brandner, Rechtsanwältin und Fachanwältin für Sozialrecht, Berlin, Germany
  520. Dr. Amanda Glasbeek, Associate Professor of Criminology, York University, Toronto, Canada
  521. Lubica Vysna, social worker and PhD. candidate, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia
  522. Dr. Denise Brennan, Professor and Chair, Department of Anthropology, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C.
  523. Pablo Hörtner & Stefanie Klamuth, Librería Utopía – radical bookstore vienna, Austria7
  524. Janine Revillet, retired accountant, member of Aspasie, Geneva, Swizerland
  525. Marta Graça, PhD student, Department of Education, University of Aveiro, Portugal
  526. Dr. Mary Laing, Senior Lecturer in Criminology, Northumbria University, UK
  527. Nine, former project worker at Scot-PEP & consultant to NSWP, Malaysia
  528. Niall Mulligan, Co. Meath, Ireland
  529. Alexandra Podova, sex worker, Slovakia
  530. Kat Kolar, PhD Student University of Toronto, Canada
  531. Dr. Rhacel Salazar Parreñas, Professor of Sociology and Gender Studies, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA
  532. Melissa Hope Ditmore, Ph.D. Editor, Encyclopedia of Prostitution and Sex Work (Greenwood, 2006)
  533. Juliana Piccillo, filmmaker, I was a Teenage Prostitute, Whores on Film
  534. Maria Cecilia Hwang, PhD Candidate, Brown University, USA
  535. Billie, Community Support Worker, GOSHH (Gender, Orientation, Sexual Health, HIV (Ireland))
  536. Dr. Helmut Graupner, attorney-at-law (Vienna, Austria), president Rechtskomitee LAMBDA (RKL) (Austria), co-president Austrian Society for Sexologies (ÖGS), member World Association for Sexual Health (WAS)
  537. Lauren Pragg, PhD Candidate, York University, Toronto, Canada
  538. Jacqueline Suter, XENIA, Bern Switzerland
  539. Grogg, Artist, Bern Switzerland
  540. Jensen Byrne, LGBTI and Human Rights Project Officer, Bangkok, Thailand/Dublin, Ireland
  541. Simone Wiegratz, Hydra, Deutschland
  542. Anna Elisabetta Benucci, Venice, Italy
  543. Gloria Pasqualetto, Venice, Italy
  544. Samuel Fried, Artist, Bern, Switzerland
  545. Janine Althorp (MA), former exotic dancer, sex work researcher
  546. Christine Hibbert – Sex Worker Jamaica
  547. Peta-Gay Ebanks - Sex Worker Jamaica
  548. Emma Eastwood, Senior Media Officer, London
  549. Angela Wright – Sex Worker Jamaica
  550. Michele Lancione, University of Cambridge
  551. Sinéad Redmond, abortion and maternity rights activist, Ireland
  552. Princess Brown, Vice President, SWAJ
  553. Jenice Jackson, Public Relation Officer, SWAJ
  554. Samantha Walton, Field Officer, SWAJ
  555. Suzan Brown - Sex Worker - Jamaica
  556. Rushell Frame - Sex Worker - Jamaica
  557. Tanisha Boode - Sex Worker - Jamaica
  558. Andrean Reynelds - Sex Worker - Jamaica
  559. Andrea Brackett- Sex Worker - Jamaica
  560. Dr. Linda Duits, affiliated researcher Utrecht University, Amsterdam the Netherlands
  561. Jashett Cunningham, Sex Worker, Jamaica
  562. Christol Stewart, Sex Worker, Jamaica
  563. Darlet Williams, Sex Worker, Jamaica
  564. Althea Williams, Sex Worker, Jamaica
  565. Michelle Ann-Marie Bennett, Sex Worker, Jamaica
  566. Natoya Williams, Sex Worker, Jamaica
  567. Lucy Smith, UglyMugs.ie, Ireland
  568. Lindsay Blewett, sex worker and PhD student in Gender, Feminist, and Women’s Studies, Toronto, Canada
  569. Ben Gwalchmai; maker, writer, worker - United Kingdom
  570. Alessandro Iannelli, communication manager, Berlin Germany
  571. Siobhan O'Donoghue, Social Justice Activist, Ireland
  572. Dearbhla Ryan, Community Worker, Irelan
  573. Kedar Maharjan, human rights activist, Kathmandu Nepal.
  574. Paul Formaran, writer, human rights and peace advocate, Philippines
  575. Michelle Sands, sex worker and sex worker rights activist
  576. Meghan Maury, former sex worker, Senior Policy Counsel, National LGBTQ Task Force, United States
  577. Mojca Pajnik, researcher, Peace Institute, Slovenia
  578. Dr. Erica Lorraine Williams, Associate Professor of Anthropology, Spelman College, Atlanta, GA USA
  579. Damián Castañeda Hidalgo, Social Community Worker, Spain
  580. Wellington Pedroso da Silva, sex worker, Madrid, Spain
  581. Nacho Pardo Benavente, Sex Workers Support Comeettee
  582. Ana Karen Lopez Quintana, Mexico
  583. Iztok Šori, researcher, Peace Institute, Slovenia
  584. Eka Iakobishvili, PhD candidate, University of Essex, Law School/Human Rights Center
  585. Linda Kavanagh, pro choice activist, Ireland
  586. Helen Guinane, pro choice and maternity rights activist, Ireland
  587. Sine Plambech, Anthropologist, Ph.D, Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS)
  588. Sven Beck, Belgium
  589. Susan Davis Sex Worker and Advocate, Vancouver BC
  590. Elena Shih, PhD, Assistant Professor of American Studies, Brown University, United States
  591. Anlina Sheng, NSWP, Winnipeg Working Group, sex worker, Canada
  592. Professor Julia O’Connell Davidson, School of Sociology and Social Policy, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom
  593. Mario Esteve, sex worker, Madrid, Spain
  594. Anne Fehrenbacher, University of California, Los Angeles, United States
  595. Robert WALOCH, Vienna, Austria
  596. Martina Weiser, Ananda Tantra Massage Institute, Cologne, Germany
  597. Ana Luz Mamani Silva, Mujeres del Sur - Perú
  598. Miriam Needham, Pro Choice Activist, Ireland
  599. Cameron Thibos, Managing Editor, Beyond Trafficking and Slavery
  600. Dénes Türei, activist and ally, Budapest Hungary
  601. Julie Ham, Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, University of Hong Kong
About the author

The International Committee on the Rights of Sex Workers in Europe (ICRSE) is a sex worker-led network representing 70 organisations led by or working with sex workers in Europe and Central Asia, as well as 150 individuals including sex workers, academics, trade unionists, human rights advocates, women’s rights activists, and LGBT rights activists.


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