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Twisting the 'lessons of history' to authorise unjustifiable violence: the Mediterranean crisis

More than 300 slavery and migration scholars respond to those advocating for military force against migrants attempting to cross the Mediterranean. This is no slave trade. Where is the moral justification for actions that cost lives? Français

A migrant who drowned crossing the Mediterranean in April is unloaded in Malta. Christian Mangion/Demotix. All Rights Reserved.

Update: This letter has generated support from scholars across the world, not only from within the fields of migration and slavery but also from many related areas—such as law, history and philosophy—as well as support from other parts of civil society. As of 17 June we have received 394 additional signatures of support. They, as well as the 310 initial signatories, are listed below.

To add your name to the list of signatures, please email your name and institutional affiliation to beyond.slavery@opendemocracy.net with the subject "SIGN".

European Union political leaders have announced that their response to the staggering loss of life amongst migrants crossing the Mediterranean in unseaworthy vessels will be the use of force to smash the so-called ‘networks’ that operate out of Libya to orchestrate the perilous sea crossings. How? On May 11, EU foreign policy chief Federica Mogherini stated that "No one is thinking of bombing. I'm talking about a naval operation," but two days later, the Guardian reported on a leaked strategy paper for an EU mission in the Mediterranean and in Libyan territorial waters proposing an air and naval campaign. This, the paper said, would lead to ‘collateral damage’. In other words, adults and children boarding or aboard the vessels under attack might be killed. With or without bombs, such ‘collateral damage’ is already a known product of the measures being employed by the EU to push back, deter, and divert migrants, including those seeking asylum.

Where is the moral justification for some of the world’s richest nations employing their naval and technological might in a manner that leads to the death of men, women and children from some of the world’s poorest and most war torn regions? A dangerous perversion of history is being peddled to answer this question.

In recent years, policy on unauthorized movement across borders has drawn a distinction between the activities of ‘people smugglers’ and those of ‘human traffickers’. Smuggling involves voluntary, consensual arrangements, but trafficking is said to entail coercion or deception, and has been repeatedly likened to the transatlantic slave trade by politicians, journalists, and even some contemporary anti-slavery campaigners. The dangers of the analogy are now made manifest, with the terms ‘smuggling’ and ‘trafficking’ being employed interchangeably in relation to migrants crossing the Mediterranean. And it is this elision that makes it possible for EU leaders to discuss the use of military force on the North African coast as if it were a moral necessity. “Human traffickers are the slave traders of the 21st century, and they should be brought to justice”, Italian Prime Minister Matteo Renzi recently wrote. When the problem is framed in this way, their vow to “identify, capture and destroy” the vessels of those who move migrants looks like a ‘tough choice’ forced upon EU leaders by the sudden appearance of a far greater evil—a modern slave trade.

But this is patently false and entirely self-serving. As scholarship on the history of slavery makes painfully clear, what is happening in the Mediterranean today does not even remotely resemble the transatlantic slave trade. Enslaved Africans did not want to move. They were held in dungeons before being shackled and loaded onto ships. They had to be prevented from choosing suicide over forcible transportation. That transportation led to a single and utterly appalling outcome—slavery.

Today, those embarking on the journey to Europe want to move. If they were free to do so, they would be taking advantage of the flights that budget airlines operate between North Africa and Europe at a tiny fraction of the cost of the extraordinarily dangerous sea passage. And it is not ‘slavers’ or ‘traffickers’ who are preventing them from accessing this safe route.

It’s true that would-be migrants are sometimes held in terrifying conditions in Libya, but not in dungeons as a precursor to being forcibly shipped as slaves. Rather, many are held in immigration detention centres, partly funded by the EU, where both adults and children are at risk of violence, including whippings, beatings and torture. And the outcome for those who make it onto boats is uncertain. Some die en route, some survive only to be exploited and abused at the point of destination. But others who survive secure at least a chance of accessing rights, protection, family reunion, education, work, freedom from persecution, and so on.

This is not the contemporary equivalent of the transatlantic slave trade. To attempt to crush it with military force is not to take a noble stand against the evil of slavery, or even against ‘trafficking’. It is simply to continue a long tradition in which states, including slave states of the eighteenth and nineteenth century, use violence to prevent certain groups of human beings from moving freely.

This, it should be remembered, is a tradition that found its apogee in the now notorious Berlin Conference of 1885 which authorised the partition/conquest of Africa by the powers of Europe on the basis of ending so-called ‘Arab slavery’. In the two decades that followed, millions of Africans lost their lives including vast numbers of Congolese under the tutelage of the great ‘philanthropist’ himself, King Leopold II of Belgium.

And today the manner in which European states, and Australia, are continuing that tradition sets an example which is being followed worldwide, as evidenced by the appalling spectacle of Rohingya refugees fleeing persecution in Myanmar, but refused landing in Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia and left to die at sea.

There is no moral basis for measures that lead to the death of peaceable women, men and children, including victims of torture, and those fleeing persecution and war. Europe’s leaders and people must remember their own history, recent and not so recent, and the responsibilities Europe bears for the bodies in the Mediterranean and the people on the boats. We call for the resettlement of many more refugees within Europe and the dismantling of the barriers to movement that have been put in the way of all but the most wealthy.

We demand that Europe’s political leaders stop abusing the history of transatlantic slavery to legitimate military and migrant deterrent actions, and instead recall, and act upon the demands for freedom of movement, or ‘a right of locomotion’ articulated by African American anti-slavery activists of the nineteenth century.

No man can put a chain about the ankle of his fellow man without at last finding the other end fastened about his own neck.
Frederick Douglass

Signatures

  1. Marthe Achtnich - University of Oxford
  2. Nilufar Ahmed - Senior Research Officer, Swansea University
  3. Bridget Anderson - Professor, COMPAS, University of Oxford
  4. Ruben Andersson - Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Department of International Development, LSE
  5. Kehinde Andrews - Senior Lecturer in Sociology, Birmingham City University
  6. Ana Lucia Araujo - Professor of History, Howard University, Washington DC
  7. Paola Bacchetta - Associate Professor, Department of Gender and Women's Studies, University of California, Berkeley
  8. Oliver Bakewell - Co-Director IMI and Associate Professor, International Migration Institute, University of Oxford
  9. Dr Alex Balch - Senior lecturer, Department of Politics, Centre for the Study of International Slavery (CSIS), University of Liverpool
  10. Manuel Barcia - Professor of Latin American History, School of Languages, Cultures and Societies, Deputy Director - Institute for Colonial and Postcolonial Studies, University of Leeds
  11. Jenny Barrett - DPhil in International Development, University of Oxford
  12. David Bartram - Department of Sociology, University of Leicester
  13. Tanja Bastia - Senior Lecturer, University of Manchester
  14. Harald Bauder - Academic Director, Ryerson Centre for Immigration & Settlement (RCIS), Professor of Geography, Ryerson University
  15. Esma Baycan - Department of Political Science and International Relations, University of Geneva
  16. Laya Behbahani - Business & Policy Analyst, Simon Fraser University
  17. Alice Bellagamba - Professor Political Anthropology, African Studies, University of Milan-Bicocca
  18. Fatiha Belmessous - Researcher, Université de Lyon
  19. Nikki Berg Burin - Assistant Professor of History and Women & Gender Studies, University of North Dakota
  20. Gurminder K. Bhambra - Professor of Sociology, University of Warwick
  21. Sirma Bilge - Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, Université de Montréal, Québec
  22. Elizabeth Bishop - Associate Professor, Modern Arab History, Texas State University
  23. Carin Björngren Cuadra - Associate Professor, Department of Social work, Malmö University
  24. David Blight - Professor of American History, Yale University
  25. Prof. Dr. Manuela Boatcă - Sociology of global inequalities, Institute for Latin American Studies, Freie Universität Berlin
  26. Anthony Bogues - Asa Messer Professor of Humanities and Critical Theory, Director for the Center of Slavery and Justice, Brown University, USA
  27. Eileen Boris - Hull Professor, History, Global Studies and Black Studies, University of California, Santa Barbara
  28. Laura Brace - Senior Lecturer, Politics, University of Leicester
  29. Avtar Brah - Professor Emerita, Birkbeck College, University of London
  30. Pepijn Brandon - NWO-Rubicon Fellow, Post-doctoral Associate, History Department, University of Pittsburgh
  31. Karen E. Bravo - Professor of Law, Robert H. McKinney School of Law, Indiana University
  32. Jan Brezger - Research Associate, Freie University, Berlin
  33. Prof. Dr. Sabine Broeck - Universität Bremen
  34. Thomas C. Buchanan - University of Adelaide
  35. Alice Bullard - Chief Executive Officer, IRA-USA and former Professor of History, Georgia Institute of the Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
  36. Vernon Burton - Director Clemson CyberInstitute, Creativity Professor Humanities, Professor of History, Sociology, and Computer Science, Clemson University; emeritus University of Illinois
  37. Marco Buttino - Storia contemporanea, Dipartimento Culture, Politica e Società, Università di Torino
  38. Bridget Byrne - Senior Lecturer in Sociology, University of Manchester
  39. Mariana P. Candido - Assistant Professor, Department of History, University of Kansas
  40. Joseph Carens - Professor of Political Science, University of Toronto
  41. Isabel Maria Estrada Carvalhais - Assistant Professor, University of Minho, Portugal
  42. Stephen Castles - Professor, Research Chair in Sociology, School of Social and Political Sciences, The University of Sydney
  43. Mateja Celestina - Research Associate, Centre for Trust, Peace and Social Relations, Coventry University
  44. Robin Celikates - Associate Professor of Philosophy, University of Amsterdam
  45. Myriam Cherti - Migration Researcher, University of Oxford
  46. Austin Choi-Fitzpatrick - Assistant Professor of Political Sociology, Central European University, Budapest
  47. Dr Emma Christopher - University of Technology Sydney/ Anti-Slavery Australia
  48. Robin Cohen - Emeritus Professor, University of Oxford
  49. Kathleen M. Coll - Assistant Professor, Politics Department, University of San Francisco
  50. John "Sean" Condon - Associate Professor and Chair, History Department, Merrimack College
  51. Heaven Crawley - FAcSSm, Chair in International Migration, Coventry University
  52. Dr. A. Glenn Crothers - Associate Professor of History, University of Louisville
  53. Daniela Danna - Research Fellow, Università degli studi di Milano
  54. David Brion Davis - Sterling Professor of History Emeritus, Yale University
  55. Nicholas De Genova - Reader in Urban Geography, King's College London
  56. Jeroen de Kloet - Professor of Globalisation Studies, University of Amsterdam
  57. Luke De Noronha - Doctoral Candidate in Anthropology, University of Oxford
  58. Nigel de Noronha - PhD Candidate in Social Statistics, University of Manchester
  59. Jan-Georg Deutsch - Associate Professor in Commonwealth History, Fellow, St Cross College, University of Oxford
  60. Anna Di Bartolomeo - Research Fellow, Migration Policy Centre, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, European University Institute
  61. Seymour Drescher - Distinguished Professor of History, University of Pittsburgh
  62. Franck Duvell - Senior Researcher & Associate Professor, University of Oxford
  63. Dace Dzenovska - Associate Professor Migration, University of Oxford
  64. David Eltis - Robert W. Woodruff Professor of History, Emory University
  65. Pieter Emmer - Professor Emeritus, Department of History, University of Leiden, The Netherlands
  66. Hakan Erdem - Faculty Member, Sabanci University
  67. Umut Erel - Faculty of Social Sciences, The Open University
  68. James Esson - Lecturer in Human Geography, Loughborough University
  69. Nicholas J. Evans - Lecturer in Diaspora History, Wilberforce Institute for the Study of Slavery and Emancipation, University of Hull
  70. Bronwen Everill - King's College London
  71. Anne Fairchild - Historic Sites Program Manager, Indiana State Museum and Historic Sites
  72. Toyin Falola - Professor of History, University of Texas at Austin
  73. Sara R. Farris - Sociology Department, Goldsmiths college, University of London
  74. Karwan Fatah-Black - Leiden University, the Netherlands
  75. David Feldman - Professor and Director Pears Institute for the study of Antisemitism, School of Social Sciences, History and Philosophy Birkbeck, University of London
  76. Sandrina Ferreira Antunes - Assistant Professor, Universidade do Minho, Portugal
  77. Deborah A. Field - Professor of History, Adrian College, Adrian, Michigan
  78. David Scott FitzGerald - Associate Professor of Sociology, University of California, San Diego
  79. Bernard K. Freamon - Professor of Law and Director Zanzibar Program on Modern Day Slavery and Human Trafficking, Seton Hall Law School One Newark Center, Newark, New Jersey
  80. Judy Fudge - Professor, Kent Law School
  81. Paolo Gaibazzi - Research Fellow, Zentrum Moderner Orient, Berlin
  82. Marco Gardini - Post-Docoral Fellow, University of Milano-Bicocca
  83. Andrew Geddes FAcSS - Professor of Politics, University of Sheffield
  84. Malick Ghachem - Associate Professor of History, MIT History Faculty
  85. David Theo Goldberg - Professor, Comparative Literature, University of California, Humanities Research Institute, Irvine, California
  86. Christopher A. Graham - Visiting Assistant Professor, History, UNC-Greensboro
  87. Cheryl Greenberg - Paul E. Raether Distinguished Professor of History, Trinity College, Hartford, CT
  88. Melanie Griffiths - ESRC Future Research Leaders Fellow, University of Bristol
  89. Dean Grodzins - Visiting Scholar, Massachusetts Historical Society
  90. Adrián Groglopo - Lecturer, Department of Social Work, Gothenburg university, Sweden
  91. Juan Jesús Guanche Pérez - Miembro de la Junta Directiva y del Consejo Científico de la Fundación Fernando Ortiz, Coordinador de la Sección de Ciencias Sociales y Humanísticas de la Academia de Ciencias de Cuba en la especialidad de Antropología.
  92. Pamila Gupta - Wiser, University of Witswatersrand, South Africa
  93. Elise A. Guyette - Independent Scholar / Historian, Burlington, VT, USA
  94. Edgar Hassan - Director of QSR2 Solutions Ltd (Social Enterprise)
  95. Dr. Jeffrey Helgeson - Assistant Professor of History, Texas State University
  96. Eureka Henrich - Wellcome Trust Research Fellow,
    School of History, University of Leicester
  97. Per Hernaes - Professor of History, Norwegian University of Science and Technology
  98. Graham Russell Gao Hodges - George Dorland Langdon, Jr. Professor of History and Africana Studies, Colgate University
  99. Stephen Hodkinson - Director, Institute for the Study of Slavery, Department of Classics, University of Nottingham
  100. Dirk Hoerder - Professor Emeritus, Arizona State University, formerly Universitaet Bremen
  101. Liam Hogan - Independent researcher and historian, Limerick
  102. John Holmwood - Professor of Sociology, University of Nottingham
  103. Michael Honey - Fred and Dorothy Haley Professor of Humanities, University of Washington, Tacoma
  104. Neil Howard - Marie Curie Research Fellow, European University Institute
  105. Forrest Hylton - Northwestern University
  106. Engin Isin - Professor of Politics, The Open University
  107. Maurice Jackson - Georgetown University, Washington DC
  108. Christine M. Jacobsen - Professor, University of Bergen
  109. Yolande Jansen - Lecturer in Philosophy, University of Amsterdam
  110. Thibaut Jaulin - Marie Curie Fellow, CERI - Sciences Po, Paris
  111. Malarvizhi Jayanth - PhD Student, South Asian Languages & Civilizations, University of Chicago
  112. Hiranthi Jayaweera - Researcher Migration, University of Oxford
  113. Andrew M. Jefferson - Senior Researcher, Danish Institute Against Torture
  114. Irmelin Joelsson - DPhil candidate, University of Oxford
  115. Isabelle Johansson - PhD Candidate Social Anthropology, Department of Sociology, Lund University
  116. Martin Ottovay Jorgensen - Joint Phd Fellow, Department of Culture and Global Studies, Aalborg University (Denmark) & Department of history, University of Ghent (Belgium)
  117. Roberta Julian - Associate Professor School of Social Sciences, University of Tasmania, Australia
  118. Nisha Kapoor - Lecturer, University of York
  119. Lena Karamanidou - Department of Sociology, City University
  120. Maria Karaulova - Doctoral Researcher, University of Manchester
  121. Shingo Kato - Assistant Professor, Keio University, Tokyo
  122. Kerwin Kaye - Assistant Professor Sociology, Wesleyan University
  123. Esra Kaytaz - Dphil candidate, University of Oxford
  124. Kamala Kempadoo - Professor, Department of Social Science, York University, Canada
  125. Dr. Jeffrey R. Kerr-Ritchie - Associate Professor of History, Howard University
  126. Suvi Keskinen - Academy Research Fellow, Department of Social Research, University of Turku, Finland
  127. Khatija Khader - PhD Candidate, CIPOD, School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi
  128. Eric Kimball - Assistant Professor of History, University of Pittsburgh at Greensburg
  129. Danielle Kinsey - Assistant Professor, Department of History, Carleton University, Ottawa
  130. Martin Klein - Professor emeritus of History, University of Toronto
  131. Nauja Kleist - Senior Researcher, Danish Institute for International Studies
  132. Louise W. Knight - Visiting Scholar, Gender and Sexuality Studies Program, Northwestern University
  133. Ifigeneia Kokkali - Politecnico di Milano, Dip. Architettura e Studi Urbani
  134. Helga Konrad - Executive Director Anti-Trafficking, Institute for the Danube Region and Central Europe IDM, Head/Coordinator of Regional Implementation Initiative on Preventing & Combating Human Trafficking
  135. Prabha Kotiswaran - Senior Lecturer, Dickson Poon School of Law, King's College, London
  136. Leena Kumarappan - Senior Research Fellow, London Metropolitan University
  137. Dr Sarah Kyambi - Anti-Trafficking Research Fellow, University of Edinburgh
  138. Benjamin N. Lawrance - Hon. Barber B. Conable, Jr. Endowed Chair in International Studies, Rochester Institute of Technology
  139. Genevieve LeBaron - Vice-Chancellor's Fellow, Department of Politics, University of Sheffield
  140. Clara Lecadet - Postdoctoral fellow, Social Anthropology, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS), Paris
  141. Prof. Dr. Baz Lecocq - Chair African History, Institute for Asian and African Studies, Humboldt University of Berlin
  142. Rob Lemkin - Film maker, Oxford
  143. Katharina Lenner - Postdoctoral fellow, Prince Al Hussein Bin Abdullah II School of International Studies, Jordan University, & Associated Researcher, Institut Français du Proche-Orient (ifpo), Amman
  144. Jens Lerche - Reader in Agrarian and Labour Studies, School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), University of London
  145. Giulia Liberatore - Leverhulme Early Career Fellow, University of Oxford
  146. Peter Linebaugh - Professor of History, University of Toledo
  147. Abdulaziz Y. Lodhi - Professor Emeritus, Department of Linguistics & Philology, Uppsala University, Sweden
  148. Paul E. Lovejoy FRSC - Distinguished Research Professor, Canada Research Chair in African Diaspora History, York University, Toronto
  149. Richard K. MacMaster - (retired) University of Florida
  150. Cetta Mainwaring - Assistant Professor, Sociology and Legal Studies, University of Waterloo, Canada
  151. Bharat Malkani - Lecturer, Birmingham Law School, University of Birmingham
  152. Virginia Mantouvalou - Reader in Human Rights and Labour Law, Co-Director of the Institute for Human Rights, University College London
  153. Faith Marchal - PhD Candidate, School of Law, Birkbeck College, University of London
  154. Abdeslam Marfouk - International Migration Researcher, Université Libre de Bruxelles
  155. Yvonni Markaki - Research Officer, Migration Observatory, University of Oxford
  156. Martina Martignoni - PhD student, University of Leicester
  157. Scott C. Martin - Professor of History and American Culture Studies Chair, Dept. of History, Bowling Green State University
  158. Enrique Martino - PhD Research Fellow, Humboldt University of Berlin
  159. Lucy Mayblin - Research Fellow, Department of Politics, University of Sheffield
  160. Achille Mbembe - Research Professor in History and Politics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg
  161. W. Caleb McDaniel - Assistant Professor of History, Rice University
  162. Siobhán McGrath - Lecturer in Human Geography, Durham University
  163. John R. McKivigan - Editor Frederick Douglass Papers, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
  164. Aidan McQuade - Anti-Slavery International
  165. Alexander Meckelburg - Ph.D. Student, Hiob Ludolf Centre for Ethiopian Studies, University of Hamburg
  166. Kathryn Medien - ESRC Doctoral Researcher, Department of Sociology and Centre for the Study of Women and Gender, University of Warwick
  167. Dario Melossi - Department of Legal Studies, School of Law, University of Bologna
  168. Sandro Mezzadra - Professor, Dipartimento di Scienze Politiche e Sociali, University of Bologna
  169. Alessandra Mezzadri - Lecturer in Development Studies, SOAS, London
  170. Fabiola Mieres - Research Associate, Durham University
  171. Randall Miller - Professor of History, Saint Joseph's University, Philadelphia
  172. Margot Minardi - Associate Professor of History and Humanities, Reed College, Portland, Oregon
  173. Sverre Molland - Lecturer in Anthropology, Development Studies, Australian National University
  174. Ismael Montana - Northern Illinois University
  175. Anne Elizabeth Moore - independent journalist, Chicago Illinois
  176. Laura Morales - Professor in Comparative Politics, Department of Politics and International Relations, University of Leicester
  177. Ian Morrison - Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, Anthropology, Psychology and Egyptology (SAPE), The American University in Cairo, New Cairo, Egypt
  178. Yasser Moullan - International Migration Institute, University of Oxford
  179. Michael Nausner - Vice Dean and Professor of Systematic Theology, Reutlingen School of Theology
  180. Anders Neergaard - Associate Professor, Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society (REMESO), ISV, Linköping University
  181. Antonio Luigi Negro - Associate Professor of History at UFBa
  182. Melanie J. Newton - Director of Caribbean Studies at New College & Associate Professor of History, University of Toronto
  183. Dr. Abdarahmane Ngaide - Enseingant-chercheur au département d'histoire de la FLSH/UCAD (Dakar, Sénégal)
  184. Amy Niang - Lecturer in international Relations, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg
  185. Sian Nicholas - Centre for Trust, Peace and Social Relations, Coventry University
  186. Jessica Ayesha Northey - Research Associate, Centre for Trust, Peace and Social Relations, Coventry University
  187. Ninna Nyberg Sørensen - Senior researcher, Research Coordinator, DIIS, Denmark
  188. Mary Nyquist - Professor of English, University of Toronto
  189. Julia O’Connell Davidson - Professor of Sociology, University of Nottingham
  190. Samuel Okyere - Lecturer in Sociology, University of Nottingham
  191. Caroline Oliver - Senior Researcher, COMPAS, University of Oxford
  192. Mojubaolu Olufunke Okome - Professor of Political Science, African & Women's Studies, Brooklyn College, CUNY
  193. Ann Ostendorf - Assistant Professor of History, Gonzaga University
  194. Elisavet Pakis - Independent Researcher
  195. Polly Pallister-Wilkins - Department of Politics, University of Amsterdam
  196. Dimitris Papadopoulos - Reader in Sociology and Organization, Management School, University of Leicester
  197. Damian Alan Pargas - Associate Professor of History, Leiden University
  198. Michael Parrish - Professor of History, Baylor University
  199. Diana Paton - Reader in Caribbean History, Newcastle University
  200. Lotte Pelckmans - Researcher, Danish Institute for International Studies
  201. Nicola Phillips - Professor of Political Economy, University of Sheffield
  202. Jo Phoenix - Professor of Criminology, University of Leicester
  203. Teresa Piacentini - Sociology, University of Glasgow
  204. Linda Pitelka - Professor of History, Maryville University
  205. Tamara Plakins - Thornton Professor, Department of History, State University of New York, Buffalo
  206. Jessica R. Pliley - Texas State University
  207. George R. Price - Lecturer, Depts. of Native American Studies and History and the African American Studies Program, University of Montana
  208. Keith Pringle - Professor Emeritus in Sociology, Uppsala University, Honorary Professor, University of Warwick, Professor Emeritus in Social Policy and Social work, London Metropolitan University
  209. Lara Putnam - Professor and Chair, Department of History, University of Pittsburgh
  210. Joel Quirk - Associate Professor in Political Studies, University of the Witwatersrand
  211. John W. Quist - Professor, Shippensburg University
  212. Parvati Raghuram - Director of OpenSpace Research Centre, Geography Department, The Open University,
  213. Victoria Redclift - Lecturer in Sociology, Faculty of Arts and Human Sciences, University of Surrey
  214. Marcus Rediker - Distinguished Professor of Atlantic History, University of Pittsburgh
  215. João José Reis - Professor of History, Federal University of Bahia, Brazil
  216. Rita Ribeiro - Assistant Professor, University of Minho, Portugal
  217. David Richardson - Professor Emeritus, Economic History, University of Hull
  218. Marlise Richter - Sonke Gender Justice, South Africa
  219. Georgia Rigg - Leadership Lead, RECLAIM Project, Manchester
  220. Kate Roberts - Community Advocate, Kalayaan, London
  221. Stacey Robertson - Central Washington University
  222. Caroline Robinson - Policy Director, Focus on Labour Exploitation (FLEX)
  223. Stephen J. Rockel - Associate Professor, History, Director, African Studies, Department of Historical and Cultural Studies, University of Toronto
  224. Cathy Rodabaugh - Professional and Graduate Studies, Hiram College (Ohio)
  225. Dr Marie Rodet - Lecturer in the History of Africa, School of Oriental & African Studies (SOAS)
  226. David R. Roediger - Foundation Distinguished Professor of American Studies and History, Kansas University
  227. Ben Rogaly - Professor of Human Geography, University of Sussex
  228. Pernille Røge - Assistant Professor, University of Pittsburgh, PA
  229. Mary Romero - Carnegie Scholar, Professor, Justice & Social Inquiry, Arizona State University
  230. Benedetta Rossi - Lecturer in African Studies, University of Birmingham
  231. Stephen L. Rozman - Professor of Political Science, Tougaloo College
  232. Vincenzo Ruggiero - Professor, School of Law, Middlesex University
  233. Anita Rupprecht - Senior Lecturer, University of Brighton
  234. Alex Sager - Assistant Professor, Portland State University
  235. Chandler B. Saint - President, Beecher House Center for the Study of Equal Rights, Co-director Documenting Venture Smith Project
  236. Mohammed Bashir Salau - Associate Professor of history, University of Mississippi
  237. Kerstin Sandell - Associate Professor, Gender Studies, Lund University, Sweden
  238. Lena Sawyer - Associate Professor of Social Work, Gothenburg University, Sweden
  239. Marta Scaglioni - PhD Candidate at the University of Bayreuth, Germany, and Milano-BIcocca, Italy
  240. Carl-Ulrik Schierup - Professor, REMESO
    Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society, Linköping University, Sweden
  241. Annelie Schlaug - PhD candidate Peace and Conflict Research, Lund University, Sweden
  242. Camille Schmoll - Laboratoire CNRS Géographie-cités, Université Paris
  243. Patricia Schor - Utrecht University
  244. Rebecca J. Scott - Professor of History and Law, University of Michigan
  245. Ahmadou Sehou - Enseignant chercheur, Département d'histoire, Université de Maroua, Cameroun
  246. Giorgia Serughetti - University of Milano-Bicocca
  247. Svati P. Shah - Associate Professor, University of Massachusetts, Amherst
  248. Nandita Sharma - Director, International Cultural Studies Program and Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, University of Hawaii at Mānoa
  249. Eva Sheppard Wolf - Professor of History, San Francisco State University
  250. Robbie Shilliam - Reader in International Relations, Queen Mary University of London
  251. Isabel Shutes - Assistant Professor, London School of Economics and Political Science
  252. James Sidbury - Andrew W. Mellon Distinguished Professor of the Humanities, Rice University
  253. Nando Sigona - Senior Lecturer & Birmingham Fellow, Deputy Director, Institute for Research into Superdiversity, School of Social Policy, University of Birmingham
  254. Stephanie Silverman - The Graduate School of Public and International Affairs, University of Ottawa
  255. Ibrahim Sirkeci - Ria Financial Professor, Regent's Centre for Transnational Studies, Regent's University London
  256. Ala Sirriyeh - Lecturer in Sociology, Keele University
  257. Wolbert G.C. Smidt - Associate Professor in Ethnohistory, Department of History and Cultural Studies, Mekelle University, Ethiopia
  258. Gretchen Soderlund - Associate Professor of Media History, School of Journalism and Communication, University of Oregon
  259. Stacey Sommerdyk - University of the Witwatersrand
  260. Tim Soriano - PhD Candidate in History, The University of Illinois at Chicago
  261. Randy J. Sparks - Professor of History, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana
  262. Suzanne B. Spring - Senior Lecturer in Writing and Rhetoric, Colgate University
  263. James Brewer Stewart - James Wallace Professor of History, Emeritus, Macalester College, Founder, Historians Against Slavery
  264. Julia Suárez-Krabbe - Associate Professor, Department of Culture and Identity, Roskilde University
  265. James H. Sweet - Vilas-Jartz Distinguished Professor, Department of History, University of Wisconsin
  266. Sachi Takaya - Associate Professor, Okayama University, Japan
  267. Stephanie Tamby - PhD Candidate, Faculty of Social Studies and Humanities, University of Mauritius
  268. Dr. Anastasia Tataryn - Warwick Law School, University of Warwick
  269. Mekonnen Tesfahuney - Associate Professor, Department of Geography, Media & Communication, Karlstads University, Sweden
  270. Patrizia Testaì - researcher, Defence for Children Italy
  271. Cameron Thibos - Migration specialist and Managing Editor of Beyond Trafficking and Slavery
  272. Chuck Thiesson - Research Fellow in Peacebuilding, Coventry University
  273. Ibrahima Thioub - Professor of History, Director of the Centre Africain de Recherches sur les Traites et les Esclavages (CARTE), Cheikh Anta Diop, University of Dakar - Senegal
  274. Zoe Trodd - Professor and Chair of American Literature, University of Nottingham
  275. Joseph Tsigbe - Maître-assistant d'histoire contemporaine, Université de Lomé
  276. John R. Van Atta - The Brunswick School, Greenwich, CT
  277. Huub Van Baar - Assistant Professor/Research Fellow, University of Giessen, University of Amsterdam
  278. Nicholas Van Hear - Researcher on Migration, University of Oxford
  279. Marieke van Houte - Postdoctoral Research Fellow, International Migration Institute, University of Oxford
  280. Henk van Houtum - Nijmegen Centre for Border Research, Radboud, University Nijmegen
  281. William C. Van Norman - Associate Professor of History, James Madison University
  282. Alex van Stipriaan - Professor of Caribbean History, Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands
  283. Eric Vanhaute - Professor Economic and World History, Ghent University, Belgium
  284. Jo Vearey - Associate Professor and Postgraduate Coordinator: African Centre for Migration & Society, University of the Witwatersrand
  285. Alessandra Venturini - Deputy Director of the Migration Policy Centre, European University Institute (EUI), Florence
  286. Simona Vezzoli - Research Officer, International Migration Institute, Oxford Department of International Development, University of Oxford
  287. Tom Vickers - Northumbria University
  288. Dora-Olivia Vicol - Dphil Candidate
  289. Maria Villares - Research Fellow, Centre for Research in Ethnic Minority Entrepreneurship (CREME), Birmingham Business School
  290. Bastian Vollmer - Leverhulme Fellow, University of Oxford
  291. Michael Vorenberg - Associate Professor of History, Brown University
  292. Iain Walker - Migration researcher, University of Oxford
  293. Dr. Kerry Ward - Associate Professor of History, Rice University
  294. Klaus Weber - European University Viadrina, Faculty of Social and Cultural Sciences, European Economic and Social History, Frankfurt (Oder)
  295. Julia Welland - Department of Politics and International Studies, University of Warwick
  296. Susanne Wessendorf - Institute for Research into Superdiversity (IRiS), School of Social Policy, University of Birmingham
  297. Christine Whyte - Leverhulme Early Career Fellow, School of History, Kent University
  298. Hanna Wikström - Researcher, Department of Law, Uppsala University; Department of Social Work, University of Gothenburg
  299. John Alexander Williams - Professor, Department of History, Bradley University
  300. David C. Williard - Assistant Professor, Department of History, University of St. Thomas
  301. Sharon E. Wood - Professor of History, University of Nebraska at Omaha
  302. Kirsten E. Wood - Associate Professor of History, Florida International University
  303. Tryon P. Woods - Sociology/Anthropology/Crime & Justice Studies, Black Studies and Women & Gender Studies, affiliate University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth
  304. Karen Woods Weierman - Professor of English, Worcester State University (Massachusetts, USA)
  305. Agnes Woolley - Lecturer in Contemporary Literature, Royal Holloway, University of London
  306. Robert E. Wright - Nef Family Chair of Political Economy,
    Augustana College, South Dakota
  307. Debbie Wright - Producer, From Liberty to Captivity, President, Do What's Wright Production Company
  308. Donald Yacovone - Associate, Hutchins Center for African and African American Research, Harvard University
  309. Natalie Zemon Davis - Professor Emeritus, Princeton University and University of Toronto
  310. Prof. Dr. Michael Zeuske - Iberische u Lateinamerikanische Abt, U zu Koeln

Post-publication signatures

  1. Tanja Aalberts - Transnational Legal Studies, VU university, Amsterdam
  2. Delphine Abadie - Graduate Student (Philosophy/Africanist Studies), Université de Montréal
  3. Diego Acosta Arcarazo - Lecturer in European Law, Deputy Director for Impact, University of Bristol
  4. Erica Aiazzi - University of Pavia
  5. Melissa Ait - Engineer Ecole Centrale
  6. Gabriella Alberti - Lecturer in Work and employment relations, University of Leeds
  7. Kleoniki Alexopoulou - PhD researcher on African Economic History, Wageningen University
  8. Maybritt Jill Alpes - Postdoctoral Researcher, Faculty of Law (Migration Law Section), VU University Amsterdam
  9. Juan Amaya-Castro - Associate Professor, UN mandated University for Peace
  10. Paul Anantharajah Tambyah - Professor of Medicine, National University of Singapore
  11. Ben Anderson - Lecturer in Twentieth-Century European History, Keele University
  12. Rutvica Andrijasevic - Associate Professor in Management, University of Bristol
  13. Antonela Arhin - Sessional Lecturer, University of Toronto
  14. Rosita Armytage - PhD Candidate, Australian National University
  15. Anna Arnone - Research Associate, SOAS, University of London
  16. Lorena Arocha - Lecturer in Sociology, Associate at UK-IMR, Department of Psychology, Politics and Sociology, Canterbury Christ Church University
  17. Iman Attia - Alice Salomon University of Applied Sciences Berlin
  18. Katia Attiani
  19. Gennaro Avallone - Università di Salerno
  20. Vanessa Azzeruoli - Phd in social sciences, Univeristy of Padua
  21. Bruno Antonio B.A.Bellerate
  22. Sébastien Bachelet - Doctoral candidate in social anthropology, University of Edinburgh
  23. Isabelle Baez - Chargée de cours, Université du Québec à Montréal
  24. Mina Baginova - Centre for Latin American Research and Documentation, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands
  25. Theodore Baird - Post-doc, VU University Amsterdam
  26. Marzia Barbera - Professor of Labour Law and Antidiscrimination Law, University of Brescia - Italy
  27. Gillian Barker - Assistant Professor, Department of Philosophy, University of Western Ontario
  28. Robert Barsky - Vanderbilt University
  29. Bernard Barthalay - Puissance Europe
  30. Laura Bartolini - Research Associate, Global Governance Programme, European University Institute
  31. Marie-Laure Basilien-Gainche - Professor of EU law and Human Rights Law, University Jean Moulin Lyon 3
  32. Cécile Bénoliel - Ph.D. Researcher in EU Law, European University Institute
  33. Mona Bentzen - Artist, journalist, docmentary filmmaker Norway
  34. Erika Bettoni - Communication Design Student, Kolding Denmark
  35. Mirijam Beutke - Alumni, University of Sussex
  36. Maria Bexelius - PhD Candidate, Department of Law, Uppsala University
  37. Rosa Bia - Tribunale Matera (Italy)
  38. Francesco Bianchi - APS straniamenti
  39. Andreas Bieler - Professor of Political Economy, School of Politics and International Relations, University of Nottingham
  40. Constanze Binder - Assistant Professor, Faculty of Philosophy, Erasmus University Rotterdam
  41. Alice Bloch - University of Manchester
  42. Megan Blomfield - Postdoctoral Scholar in Philosophy, Center for Ethics in Society, Stanford University
  43. Andreas Bock - Professor für Politikwissenschaft, Internationale Not- und Katastrophenhilfe
  44. Manuela Bojadzijev - Berlin Institute for Integration and Migration Research (BIM) at the Humboldt University of Berlin
  45. Olivia Bonardi - Dipartimento di scienze sociali e politiche, Università degli studi di Milano
  46. Valeria Bonatti - PhD Candidate, University of Illinois
  47. Paola Bonizzoni - Lecturer in Sociology, Dipartimento di Scienze Sociali e Politiche, Università degli Studi di Milano
  48. Richard Bonney - Emeritus Professor, University of Leicester
  49. Linda Bosniak - Rutgers University School of Law
  50. Maud Bracke - Senior Lecturer in Modern European History, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom
  51. Youssef Brahimi - Former UN Civil Servant, President of the NGO « LA ROUTE DU SEL ET DE L’ESPOIR »
  52. Nadia Breda
  53. Brid Brennan - Transnational Institute (TNI), Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  54. Sabine Bretz - Social Anthropology, African Studies and Journalism, Freie Universität Berllin
  55. Gabriella Broccoli
  56. Alec Brookes - Assistant Professor of Russian, Memorial University of Newfoundland
  57. Jan Buelens - Professor of labour law, University of Antwerp
  58. Richard Burnham - Technical writer, Director, Wise Words
  59. Andrew Burridge - Research Associate, Department of Geography, University of Exeter
  60. Daouda Camara
  61. Courtney Campbell - Past & Present Postdoctoral Fellow, The Institute of Historical Research, University of London
  62. Giuseppe Campesi - Dipartimento di Scienze politiche, Università degli Studi di Bari (Italy)
  63. Carmen Campesi
  64. Francesca Capelli - Sociologist, Universidad de Buenos Aires
  65. Gloria Carlini - University of Milano-Bicocca
  66. Andrea Carlo - Graduate Student, Pisa University
  67. Jean-Pierre Cassarino - IRMC, Institut de Recherche sur le Maghreb Contemporain, Tunis
  68. Carl Cassegard - Associate Professor of Sociology, University of Gothenburg
  69. R. Tina Catania - Syracuse University, PhD Student, Department of Geography
  70. Bernardo Caycedo - PhD Researcher in Philosophy, University of Amsterdam
  71. Iain Chambers - Professor, University of Naples, L’Orientale
  72. Richard Yetter Chappell - Lecturer in Philosophy, University of York
  73. Gianpaolo Chiriacò - Marie Curie Researcher in ethnomusicology and music of the African diaspora, University of Salento, Italy
  74. Ioana Chis - Social and Political Theory student, University of Birmingham
  75. Ryoa Chung - Associate Professor, Philosophy, Université de Montréal
  76. Salvatore Ciccarello - Firmo l’appello comparso sul Manifesto il 4-6-15
  77. Rina Cohen - Associate Professor (Sociology), York University, Canada
  78. Filippo Contesi - HRC Postdoctoral Fellow, University of York
  79. Dragoș Costache - MA Social Anthropology programme, Stockholms Universitet
  80. Rosie Cox - Reader in Geography, Birkbeck, University of London
  81. Jeff Crisp - Refugee Studies Centre, University of Oxford
  82. Isabel Crowhurst - Lecturer in Sociology and Criminology, Department of Sociology, University of Essex
  83. Katie Cruz - Lecturer in Law, Keele University
  84. Paolo Cuttitta - Post-Doctoral Researcher, VU University Amsterdam
  85. Nora Danielson Lanier - Doctoral candidate, Centre on Migration, Policy and Society, University of Oxford
  86. Mathilde Darley
  87. Tina Davis - PhD Candidate, University of Sydney
  88. Tommaso de Cataldo - Migration management expert, poet and novelist
  89. Hein de Haas - Co-Director International Migration Institute, University of Oxford; Professor, University of Maastricht
  90. Maria de Lourdes Borges - Professor at University of Santa Catarina, Brasil
  91. Leonie Ansems de Vries - Lecturer in Politics, School of Politics and International Relations, Queen Mary University of London
  92. Marie-Benedicte Dembour - Professor of Law and Anthropology, Brighton Business School, University of Brighton
  93. Ipek Demir - University of Leicester
  94. Silvana Denicolo - Consigliera Regionale del Lazio - Movimento 5 Stelle
  95. Vittorio Dezza - Presidente nazionale Legambiente
  96. Emily Diab - PhD Candidate in Public International Law at the Law Faculty of Uppsala University
  97. Andonea Dickson - PhD Candidate, Human Geography in the School of Geosciences, The University of Sydney
  98. Dimitri Dimoulis - Professor of constitutional law, Law School, Getulio Vargas Foudation, Sao Paulo, Brazil
  99. Anna Distelberger
  100. Jan Dobbernack - Senior Lecturer, School of Social and Political Sciences, University of Lincoln
  101. Sonja Dolinsek - PhD Student, History, University Erfurt
  102. Ida Dominijanni - Research Fellow, Cornell Univ., Ithaca (NY)
  103. Giorgia Dona - Professor University of East London
  104. Nick Drofiak - PhD student, history and theory of architecture, ETH Zürich
  105. Matt Duffy - London
  106. Carlo Durante
  107. Elizabeth Elbourne - Associate Professor in the Department of History and Classical Studies, McGill University, Montreal
  108. Sally Engle Merry - Silver Professor and Associate Chair Department of Anthropology, New York University
  109. Jo Esra - College of Humanities, University of Exeter
  110. Silvia Evangelisti - School of History, University of East Anglia
  111. Michael Eve - Associate Professor, Department of Legal, Social, Economic and Political Studies, University of Eastern Piedmont
  112. Nadia Fadil - Docent, Assistant Professor, Interculturalism, Migration and Minorities Research Center (IMMRC) Anthropology | Social Sciences | KU Leuven
  113. Federico Faloppa - Assistant Professor, Department of Modern Languages and European Studies, University of Reading
  114. Max Farrar - Emeritus Professor, Leeds Beckett University, UK
  115. Francesco Fasani - Lecturer, School of Economics and Finance, Queen Mary University of London
  116. Giuseppe Faso - associazione “Straniamenti”, Toscana, Italy
  117. Giovanna Fassetta - University of Glasgow
  118. Chiara Favilli - Professor of European Union Law, University of Florence
  119. Francesco Ferrante - Former Italian MP, Vicepresident Kyoto Club
  120. Valeria Ferraris - Research fellow - Department of Law - University of Turin
  121. Leslie Fesenmyer - ESRC Future Research Leaders Fellow, Centre on Migration, Policy and Society (COMPAS), University of Oxford
  122. Hart Nadav Feuer - Assistant Professor, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University
  123. Mira Fey - PhD student and research assistant, Department of International Relations/Political Science, The Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva
  124. Laura Fiocco - Associate Professor, Department of Sociology and Political Studies, University of Calabria, Italy
  125. Daniel Fisher - PhD Candidate, Department of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh
  126. Karolina Follis - Department of Politics, Philosophy and Religion, Lancaster University
  127. P. Daniele Frigerio - Chatolic priest
  128. Paola Gaeta - Professor of International Criminal Law, University of Geneva, Switzerland
  129. Costas Gaganakis - Associate Professor, Dpt of History, University of Athens
  130. Sena Galazzi - PhD Candidate, School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS)
  131. Megan Gallagher - Lecturer, Department of Political Science, University of California, Los Angeles
  132. Paola Gandolfi - Senior Lecturer, University of Bergamo, Italy
  133. Marta García Quiñones - Ph.D. candidate, Philosophy, University of Barcelona (UB)
  134. Glenda Garelli - PhD candidate, University of Illinois Chicago
  135. Steve Garner - The Open University
  136. Catherine Gegout - Lecturer in International Relations, University of Nottingham
  137. Vivian Gerrand - Postdoctoral Fellow, European University Institute
  138. Olga Gerstenberger - Researcher, Alice Salomon University of Applied Sciences Berlin
  139. Francis Ghilès - Senior Research Fellow, CIDOB
  140. Halleh Ghorashi - Professor of Sociology, VU University Amsterdam, the Netherlands
  141. Ben Gidley - Associate Professor, COMPAS, University of Oxford
  142. Klaus-Gerd Giesen - Professor of Political Science, Université d'Auvergne
  143. Giovanna Gioli - Postdoctoral scientist, Institute of Geography, University of Hamburg
  144. Alessandra Gissi - Assistant Professor - History, University of Naples L'Orientale
  145. Mariana Gkliati - PhD researcher, Institute of Immigration Law, Leiden University
  146. Amanda Glasbeek - Criminology and Socio-Legal Studies, York University (Toronto, Canada)
  147. Daniela Glueck - Student, European-University Viadrina
  148. Ena Gojak
  149. Luin Goldring - Associate Professor of Sociology, York University, Toronto (Canada)
  150. Anna Goppel - Assistant Professor, Institute of Philosophy, University of Bern
  151. Katarzyna Grabska - Research Fellow, Anthropology and Sociology of Development, Global Migration Centre and Associated Researcher, Ahfad University for Women, Omdurman, Sudan
  152. Helen Grace - Associate, Department of Gender & Cultural Studies, University of Sydney
  153. John Grayson - Chair, South Yorkshire Migration and Asylum Action Group (SYMAAG)
  154. Sarah Green - Professor of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Department of Social Research, University of Helsinki
  155. Neil Gregor - Department of History, University of Southampton
  156. Nina Gren - Center for Middle Eastern Studies, Lund University, Sweden
  157. Jan Grill - Department of Social Anthropology, University of Manchester
  158. Zoe Groves - Lecturer in African History, Cambridge University
  159. Aitana Guia - Assistant Professor (CLA), History, York University
  160. Elspeth Guild - Jean Monnet Professor ad personam, Radboud University, Nijmegen Netherlands
  161. Ayten Gundogdu - Assistant Professor of Political Science, Barnard College-Columbia University
  162. Daniel Hadas - Lecturer in Medieval Latin, Department of History, King’s College London
  163. Jeff Handmaker - Senior Lecturer, Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam
  164. Will Hanley - Assistant Professor, Department of History, Florida State University
  165. Christina Hansen - Malmö University
  166. Peo Hansen - Professor, Linköping University
  167. Claire Healy - Research Officer, Anti-Trafficking Programme, International Centre for Migration Policy Development (ICMPD)
  168. William Hebblewhite
  169. Jan-Christoph Heilinger - Munich Center of Ethics, University of Munich
  170. Javier Hidalgo - Assistant Professor of Leadership Studies, University of Richmond
  171. Helen Hintjens - International Institute of Social Studies, Erasmus University, The Hague
  172. Talitha Hirsch - National and Transnational Studies, Bremen
  173. Sophia Hoffmann - Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, Institute of International and Interncultural Studies, University of Bremen
  174. Dienke Hondius - Assistant professor of history, VU University Amsterdam
  175. Friedrich Höper
  176. Ruth Horn - Ethics and Society Wellcome Trust Fellow, The Ethox Centre, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford
  177. Annette Hübschle - Centre of Criminology/Institute for Humanities in Africa, University of Cape Town
  178. Ben Hudson - PhD Researcher in International Law & Human Rights (ESRC 1+3), University of Bristol Law School
  179. Samia Hurst - Professor of Bioethics, Institute for Ethics, History, and the Humanities, Geneva University Medical School, Switzerland
  180. Catherine Hyland Moon - Professor, Art Therapy Department, School of the Art Institute of Chicago
  181. Patricia Hynes - University of Bedfordshire
  182. Meltem Ineli Ciger - Ph.D Candidate, University of Bristol, School of Law
  183. Giulio Itzcovich - Researcher, Department of Law, University of Brescia, Italy
  184. Dirk Jacobs - Professor in sociology, Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Belgium
  185. Rahel Jaeggi - Institut für Philosophie, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin
  186. Susanne Jakobsen Tinley
  187. Hans Ulrich Jessurun d’Oliveira - Professor emeritus migration law, University of Amsterdam
  188. Natali Vania Jesus - M.A. in Cultural and Visual Anthropology & African Studies
  189. Martin Bak Jørgensen - Associate Professor, Aalborg University
  190. Jasna Jozelic - University of Oslo
  191. Nina María Jurisch - Technical University Berlin, Institute for Sociology (Gender, Media and Communication Studies)
  192. Sara Kalm - Senior lecturer in political science, Lund University
  193. Panagiotis Kanellopoulos - Associate Professor of Music Education, University of Thessaly, Greece
  194. Zeynep Kasli - University of Washington, Seattle
  195. Janroj Keles - Research Fellow, Department of Leadership, Work and Organisations, Middlesex University
  196. Tom Kemp - PhD Candidate, Kent Law School
  197. Mahmoud Keshavarz - Malmö University, Sweden
  198. Karoline Kindermann
  199. Samantha King - Professor, School of Kinesiology & Health Studies, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario
  200. Julie Klein - Associate Professor of Philosophy, Villanova University, USA
  201. Anne Koch - European University Viadrina
  202. Kira Kosnick - Professor of Sociology, Goethe University Frankfurt
  203. Viktors Kravčenko - EU citizen, Riga, Latvia
  204. kritnet - Network for critical migration and border regime studies
  205. Christine Kriza - Research Fellow, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg
  206. Nertila Kuraj
  207. Rudolf Lachinger
  208. Aleksandra Lakic - Master Student: Social Sciences, Humboldt University of Berlin
  209. Michele Lancione - Urban Studies PostDoctoral Fellow, Department of Geography, University of Cambridge
  210. Lydia Langerwerf - University of Groningen
  211. Tamara Last - PhD, Migration Law, VU University Amsterdam
  212. Raffaele Laudani - Associate professor of History of Political Thought and Atlantic Studies, Department of History, University of Bologna
  213. Runa Lazzarino - PhD candidate, Socio-Cultural Anthropology, Università degli Studi Milano Bicocca (Italy)
  214. Nicolas Lemay-Hébert - Senior Lecturer, Director of Research, International Development Department, University of Birmingham, Birmingham
  215. Martin Lemberg-Pedersen - Postdoctoral Fellow, Centre for Advanced Migration Studies, University of Copenhagen
  216. Emanuele Leonardi - Post-doc researcher, University of Coimbra
  217. Alan Lester - Professor of Historical Geography, University of Sussex
  218. Antonina Levatino - Political and Social Sciences Department, Universitat Pompeu Fabra
  219. Mark Levene - Reader in History, University of Southampton
  220. Hannah Lewis - Critical Human Geography Research Fellow, University of Leeds
  221. Natasha Lightfoot - Assistant Professor of History, Columbia University
  222. Isabella Löhr - GWZO Leipzig University, Germany
  223. Sylvie Loriaux - Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, Laval University
  224. Marta Lotto - PhD candidate, University of Paris 8
  225. Martin Lundsteen - Department of Social Anthropology, University of Barcelona
  226. Helma Lutz - Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Faculty of Social Sciences
  227. Audrey Macklin - Professor and Chair in Human Rights Law, Faculty of Law, University of Toronto
  228. Ewa Macura-Nnamdi - Assistant Professor, Department of English, University of Bielsko-Biała, Poland
  229. Roda Madziva - Leverhulme Research Fellow, School of Politics and International Relations, University of Nottingham
  230. Stephanie Maher - PhD Candidate, Department of Anthropology, University of Washington
  231. Nicola Mai - Professor of Sociology and Migration Studies, London Metropolitan University
  232. Richard Mallett - Overseas Development Institute
  233. Alejandra Mancilla - Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, CSMN, Faculty of Humanities, University of Oslo
  234. Edislav Manetovic - Assistant Professor of International Relations, State University of New York at Old Westbury
  235. Sabrina Marchetti - Jean Monnet Fellow, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, European University Institute
  236. Samuela Marconcini - Empoli (Firenze), Italia
  237. Franziska Martinsen - Leibniz University Hannover, Germany
  238. Jon Martyn - Associate Tutor, MA Art Psychotherapy, Goldsmiths College
  239. Noëlie Maurel - Postdoctoral researcher, University of Constance
  240. Laurence Mazure - International independent journalist, Periodista internacional independiente
  241. Tecla Mazzarese - Professor of Philosophy of Law, Law Department, University of Brescia, Italy
  242. Jacinthe Mazzocchetti - LAAP-UCL
  243. E Ann McDougall - Professor, Department of History and Classics, University of Alberta, Canada
  244. Victor Merino - Associate Professor, Department of Public Law, Rovira i Virgili University (Spain)
  245. Lies Michielsen - Researcher, University of Antwerp, Belgium
  246. Elena Mihajlova - Assistant professor of international law, faculty of law- Skopje
  247. Gordana Milic
  248. Emily Miller - Graduate student- SAS, University of London
  249. Monika Mokre - Institute of Culture Studies and Theatre History, Austrian Academy of Sciences
  250. Julian Molina - Doctoral Candidate in Sociology, University of Warwick
  251. Pierre Monforte - Lecturer in Sociology, University of Leicester
  252. Karl Monsma - Professor of Sociology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  253. Paola Monzini - independent expert at the international level, based in Rome - Italy
  254. Marcia Morgan - Associate Professor, Director, Women's and Gender Studies, Department of Philosophy, Muhlenberg College
  255. Diletta Moscatelli - PhD candidate in Anthropology, University of Aix-Marseille
  256. Mareike Müller - Student in political science, Sweden
  257. Parvati Nair - Queen Mary, University of London
  258. Sofia Näsström - Political Science, Uppsala University
  259. Simone Neri Seneri - Dipartimento di Scienze politiche e internazionali, Università di Siena
  260. Frederick Neuhouser - Philosophy, Barnard College
  261. Joseph Nevins - Associate Professor of Geography, Vassar College
  262. Salvo Nicolosi - Postdoctoral Researcher in International Human Rights Law, Human Rights Centre - Ghent University
  263. Judith Norman - Trinity University
  264. Rhonna Noronha
  265. John Oldfield - Wilberforce Professor of Slavery and Emancipation, Director of the Wilberforce Institute for the study of Slavery and Emancipation (WISE), University of Hull
  266. Federico Oliveri - Research Fellow, Sciences for Peace Interdisciplinary Centre, Editorial coordinator of "Scienza e Pace" Online Journal, University of Pisa
  267. Martin Oppelt - Research Associate Political Theory, Faculty of Social Sciences, Augsburg University
  268. Ricardo Ortega - Master's student, Malmö University
  269. Tanja Ostojic - Alumni fellow, GS UdK, University of Arts Berlin
  270. David Owen - Politics and IR, University of Southampton
  271. Ingar Palmlund - Department of Urban and Environmental Policy and Planning, Tufts University
  272. Barbara Panelli - Writer - Imperia (Italy)
  273. Rossella Panuzzo - Terre des Hommes Italy Press Officer
  274. Martina Paone - PhD fellow, University of Warwick and Université Libre de Bruxelles
  275. Amin Parsa - Doctoral Candidate in Public International Law, Lund University, Sweden
  276. Francesco Pasetti - Researcher at GRITIM-UPF, PhD Candidate at Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Department of Social and Political Science
  277. Natalia Paszkiewicz - Anthropologist and Independent researcher
  278. Rebecca Pates - Professor, Political Science, Leipzig University
  279. Bandana Pattanaik - International Coordinator, Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women, Bangkok, Thailand
  280. Yannis Pechtelidis - University of Thessaly, Greece
  281. Daniel Tourinho Peres - Associate professor department of philosophy Universidade Federal da Bahia
  282. Maria Perino - ADL - Associazione per l'Ambasciata della Democrazia Locale a Zavidovici- Onlus - Impresa Sociale
  283. Gerhild Perl - Institute of Social Anthropology, University of Bern
  284. Melissa Phillips - Honorary Fellow, School of Social and Political Sciences
  285. Pina Piccolo - Independent scholar and cultural activist, organizing around migrant issues, Bologna, Italy
  286. Veronique Pin-Fat - Senior Lecturer in International Politics, Centre for International Politics, School of Social Sciences, University of Manchester
  287. Gemma Pinyol-Jiménez - Member of Instrategies. Associate Researcher, GRITIM, Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona
  288. Adrian Piper - Adrian Piper Research Archive, APRA Foundation Berlin
  289. Maria Pisani - Department of Youth & Community Studies, Faculty for Social Wellbeing, University of Malta
  290. Tamar Pitch - Professor of legal philosophy and sociology of law, University of Perugia, Italy
  291. Sine Plambech - Post.Doc-Fellow, Danish Institute for International Studies
  292. Nigel Pleasants - University of Exeter
  293. Regina Polak - Associate Professor, Department of Practical Theology, Catholic Faculty of the University of Vienna
  294. Adina Preda
  295. Kerry Preibisch - Associate Professor, University of Guelph
  296. Baukje Prins - Professor Citizenship and Diversity, The Hague University for Applied Sciences, The Netherlands
  297. Timothy Raeymaekers - Lecturer, Department of Geography, University of Zurich
  298. Anna Regache
  299. Lynette Reid - Associate Professor, Department of Bioethics, Dalhousie University
  300. Georgia Rigg - RECLAIM Project, Manchester
  301. Fulvia Ristuccia
  302. Rachel Robbins - Senior Lecturer, Social Work Manchester Metropolitan University
  303. Matteo Robiglio - DADDipartimento di Architettura e Design, Politecnico di Torino
  304. Maria Rocco - PhD student in Urban Studies at La Sapienza University - Roma
  305. Serena Romeo - Issues Without Borders, Italy
  306. Alejandro Rosas - Philosophy Department, Universidad Nacional de Colombia
  307. Angus Ross - School of Philosophy, University of East Anglia, UK
  308. Stefano Rota - Associazione Transglobal, Rome, Italy
  309. Katarzyna Grabska Rubio - Lecturer in Economic History, University of Alicante, Spain
  310. Salvatore Russo - Physician, Department of Public Health, Local Health Unit, Oristano, Sardinia, Italy
  311. Sawitri Saharso - Prof. Department of Sociology, VU University
  312. Raffaele Salinari - Associated professor of Political Sciences Bologna University
  313. Julija Sardelic - Max Weber Fellow, European University Institute
  314. Rosemary Sayigh - Visiting professor, CMES, American University of Beirut
  315. Yael Schacher - American Studies, University of Connecticut
  316. Stephan Scheel - Post-Doctoral Researcher, Department of Sociology, Goldsmiths, University of London
  317. Willem Schinkel - Professor of Social Theory, Erasmus University Rotterdam
  318. Eric Schliesser - BOF Research Professor, Philosophy and Moral Sciences, Ghent University
  319. Matthias Schmelzer - Paul Bairoch Institute of Economic History, University of Geneva
  320. Bas Schotel - Assistant-professor Faculty of Law, University of Amsterdam
  321. Niklas Selberg - PhD candidate, Faculty of Law, Lund University, Sweden
  322. Giovanni Senin
  323. Kiril Sharapov - Senior Lecturer in Sociology, University of Bedfordshire
  324. Igor Shoikhedbrod - University of Toronto
  325. Bojana Simeunovic
  326. Giulia Sinatti - Lecturer, Free University Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  327. May-Len Skilbrei - Professor Department of Criminology and Sociology of Law, University of Oslo
  328. Andrew Slack - University of Manchester
  329. Robert Slenes - Professor, Department of History, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, Brazil
  330. Stephanie Smallwood - Associate Professor of History, University of Washington
  331. Nicola Smith - University of Birmingham
  332. Priscilla Solano - PhD Candidate Sociology, Lund University
  333. Astrid Sommer - Translator, Wuerzburg
  334. Paul Sörensen - Universität Augsburg
  335. Federica Sossi - Professor of Aesthetics, Dipartimento di Lettere e filosofia, University of Bergamo
  336. Elisabetta Spano - Centre of African Studies, University of Edinburgh
  337. Aila Spathopoulou - Cultural Studies, Sabanci University, Istanbul
  338. Thomas Spijkerboer - Professor of Migration Law
  339. Barbara Spinelli - Member of European Parliament (group GUE-Ngl)
  340. Vicki Squire - Associate Professor of International Security, Department of Politics and International Studies, The University of Warwick
  341. Renata Šribar - Faculty for the Postgraduate Studies of the Humanities, Univerza v Ljubljani
  342. Titus Stahl - Assistant Professor of Philosophy, University of Groningen
  343. Kelly Staples - Department of Politics and International Relations, University of Leicester
  344. Lavinia Steinfort - Researcher, Radboud University Nijmegen
  345. Mollie Steward - Retired Associate Professor of Mathematics, Cumberland County College, Vineland, NJ
  346. Maurice Stierl - Associate Fellow, Warwick University
  347. Inka Stock - University of Bielefeld, Germany
  348. Kendra Strauss - Assistant Professor, The Labour Studies Program & The Morgan Centre for Labour Research, Associate Member, Department of Geography, Simon Fraser University
  349. Darko Suvin - Emeritus Professor, McGill University
  350. Petra Szablewski-Çavuş - Sprache, Arbeit, Migration, Frankfurt am Main
  351. Cemal Burak Tansel - PhD Candidate, University of Nottingham
  352. Savaş Taş - Research Officer, Alice Salomon University of Applied Sciences, Berlin
  353. Barbara Taylor - Prof of Humanities, Queen Mary University of London
  354. Mariam Thalos - Professor of Philosophy, University of Utah
  355. Thomas Thurston - Director of Education, Gilder Lehrman Center for the Study of Slavery, Resistance, and Abolition, Yale University
  356. Lisa Tilley - Erasmus Mundus GEM Joint Doctoral Fellow, Department of Politics and International Studies, University of Warwick
  357. Julia Tischler - Humboldt University in Berlin
  358. Omid Tofighian - ARC Research Assistant, Department of Philosophy - SOPHI, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, The University of Sydney
  359. Gabriele Tomei - Assistant Professor, Department of Political Sciences, University of Pisa (IT)
  360. Christoph Tometten - Berlin
  361. Ozgun Topak - Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Political Science, York University, Canada
  362. Anna Triandafyllidou - Director of the Cultural Pluralism Research Area. Global Governance Programme. European University Institute and Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Immigrant and Refugee Studies
  363. Alessandro Triulzi - Università di Napoli - L’Orientale
  364. Natasha Tsangarides - Director, The Testimony Project
  365. Georgina Tsolidis - Professor of Education, Faculty of Education and Arts, Federation University
  366. Sarah Turnbull - Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Centre for Criminology, University of Oxford
  367. Thomas Tyerman - PhD researcher, Politics, University of Manchester
  368. Petra Van Brabandt - Sint Lucas Art College Antwerp, Belgium
  369. Rogier van Reekum - Erasmus University, Department of Sociology
  370. Lorenzo Vianelli - PhD Candidate, Department of Politics and International Studies, University of Warwick
  371. Darshan Vigneswaran - Co-Director, Institute for Migration and Ethnic Studies, University of Amsterdam
  372. Domenico Vitale - Scienze Storiche e Orientalistiche, Università di Bologna
  373. Ermanno Vitale
  374. Miriam Voghera - Università di Salerno
  375. Sarah Walker - Researcher, COMPAS, University of Oxford
  376. Paul Ward - Professor of Modern British History, University of Huddersfield
  377. Frances Webber - Barrister
  378. Leanne Weber - Associate Professor, ARC Future Fellow in the Policing of Internal Borders, School of Social Sciences, Monash University, Australia
  379. Alistair Welchman - Associate Professor of Philosophy, Department of Philosophy and Classics, University of Texas at San Antonio
  380. Leila Whitley - Visiting Researcher, Centre for Feminist Research, Goldsmiths
  381. Verina Wild - Senior Assistant in Biomedical Ethics, University of Zurich
  382. Joanna Wiseman - PhD student at Newcastle University
  383. Margoth Gonzalez Woge - PhD student at the University of the Basque Country
  384. Zegnet Yimer - Graduate Student, University Of Texas
  385. Gökce Yurdakul - Humboldt University of Berlin
  386. Darij Zadnikar - University of Ljubljana
  387. Valentina Zagaria - PhD Candidate Anthropology Department, LSE
  388. Romana Zajec - Cofounder, programme director, Institute APIS
  389. Cheradenine Zakalwe - Lecturer in Intercultural Studies, Glasgow Caledonian University
  390. Tahir Zaman - SOAS, University of London
  391. Viki Zaphiriou-Zarifi - PhD Student, Department of Development Studies, SOAS
  392. Jana Ziegler - Manager, Ben Lawers Hotel, UK
  393. Giovanni Zirulia - Milano, Italy
  394. Giovanna Zunica - Teacher of Biology, Liceo artistico F. Arcangeli, Bologna, Italy


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